PBS Space Time
PBS Space Time
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  • Элссэн 2015 Үхэ 9-нд
Space Time explores the outer reaches of space, the craziness of astrophysics, the possibilities of sci-fi, and anything else you can think of beyond Planet Earth with our astrophysicist host: Matthew O’Dowd.
Episodes released every Wednesday afternoon!
Matt O'Dowd spends his time studying the universe, especially really far-away things like quasars, super-massive black holes, and evolving galaxies. He uses telescopes in space to do it. Matt completed his Ph.D. at NASA's Space Telescope Science Institute, followed by work at the University of Melbourne and Columbia University. He's now a professor at the City University of New York's Lehman College and an Associate at the American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium.
Previous host Gabe Perez-Giz is an astrophysicist who studies black hole physics. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University and also hosted PBS Infinite Series.

Видео
Does Consciousness Influence Quantum Mechanics?
Does Consciousness Influence Quantum Mechanics?
4 өдрийн өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ It’s not surprising that the profound weirdness of the quantum world has inspired some outlandish explanations - nor that these have strayed into the realm of what we might call mysticism. One particularly pervasive notion is the idea that consciousness can directly influence quantum systems - and so influence reality. Today we’re going to see where this idea comes from, and whether quantum theory really supports it. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Eric Brown and Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The behavior of the quantum world is beyond weird. Objects being in multiple places at once, communicating faster than light, or simultaneously experiencing multiple entire timelines ... that then talk to each other. The rules governing the tiny quantum world of atoms and photons seem alien. And yet we have a set of rules that give us incredible power in predicting the behavior of quantum system - rules encapsulated in the mathematics of quantum mechanics. Despite its stunning success, we’re now nearly a century past the foundation of quantum mechanics and physicists are still debating how to interpret its equations and the weirdness they represent. Thanks to our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporter Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
Are Axions Dark Matter?
Are Axions Dark Matter?
10 өдрийн өмнө
For more information go to: nordvpn.com/spacetime and use the code: spacetime Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ What does the strong nuclear force, the fundamental symmetries of nature, and a laundry detergent have in common? They’re all important parts of the tale of the axion - a tale whose end may take us beyond the standard model and solve one of the most vexing mysteries in astrophysics. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd & Graeme Gossel Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The story of the axion is a classic physics tale: intrepid scientists delve deep into trackless mathematics in search of answers to a mystery. And there, against all expectations, they find the hint of a completely new and unexpected denizen of the natural world. In this case the mystery was a subtle inconsistency in the behavior of the fundamental forces. And the unexpected discovery? A brand new particle - the axion - which, while not proven to exist, may explain a much more famous conundrum. The axion may explain dark matter. Special Thanks to Our Patreons Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Blanchard Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Douglas Cantrell Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss John Funai John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Nickolas Andrew Freeman Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Protius Protius Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Shane Calimlim Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
Are there Infinite Versions of You?
Are there Infinite Versions of You?
18 өдрийн өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ If the universe goes on forever, does that mean there are infinite versions of you out there? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The cosmological equations that so beautifully describe our universe make an uncomfortable prediction: interpreting them in the most straightforward way, they tell us that the universe may be infinite. Or not; it could turn out that the universe contains enough matter and energy to close in on itself and be finite, or perhaps the simplest interpretation of the cosmological equations is TOO simple. But according to our best theoretical understanding, an infinite universe seems at least possible - and some would say likely. If so this raises an even more crazy possibility. An infinite universe may literally contain every possible thing allowable by the laws of physics - each in infinite multitude. And that includes infinite versions of you. Today I’m going to try to convince THIS version of the reality of all of the others. Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
Hacking the Nature of Reality
Hacking the Nature of Reality
24 өдрийн өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ In particle physics we try to understand reality by looking for smaller and smaller building blocks. But what if that has been the wrong philosophy all along? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd & Graeme Gossel Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber In standard use, the S-matrix can be calculated if you understand the forces in the interaction region - for example, in the nucleus of an atom. But what if you don’t know those internal interaction forces? Heisenberg sought a way to ignore that internal structure and, rather, treat the S-matrix as fundamental. The S-matrix was to become the physics of the interaction, rather than an emergent property of more fundamental, internal physics. Heisenberg’s made some progress in the 40s, but the approach came into its own 20 years later when the atomic nucleus refused to give up its mysteries. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
Solving the Three Body Problem
Solving the Three Body Problem
Сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ The three body problem is famous for being impossible to solve. But actually it's been solved many times, and in ingenious ways. Some of those solutions are incredibly useful, and some are incredibly bizarre. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Post Production: Yago Ballarini, Max Willians, Pedro Osinski Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Physics - and arguably all of science changed forever in 1687 when Isaac Newton published his Principia. Within it were equations of motion and gravity that transformed our erratic-seeming cosmos into a perfectly tuned machine of clockwork predictability. Given the current positions and velocities of the bodies of the solar system, Newton’s equations could be used in principle be used to calculate their locations at any distant time, future or past. I say “in principle” because the reality isn’t so simple. Despite the beauty of Newton’s equations, they lead to a simple solution for planetary motion in only one case - when two and only two bodies orbit each other sans any other gravitational influence in the universe. Add just one more body and in most cases all motion becomes fundamentally chaotic - there exists no simple solution. This is the three-body problem, and we’ve been trying to solve it for over 300 years. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters: Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Hypernova Supporters: A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Randall Sylvia Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk
How To Capture Black Holes
How To Capture Black Holes
Сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Black holes are awesome - but how about black holes being captured by the screaming vortex of a quasar, where they merge and grow like some monstrous version of a solar system. This insane hypothesis is getting closer to reality, according to the papers in today’s space time journal club. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Thanks to LIGO we’ve now seen black hole mergers, but there was some striking surprises. For one thing, many of the merging black holes were too massive to have been formed by the collapse of stellar cores. That is if our understanding of stellar evolution is half as good as we think it is. This led astrophysicists to think about new ways to produce black hole mergers. Here’s the most awesome possibility: what if black hole mergers actually occur in orbit around supermassive black holes, embedded deep in the whirlpools of searing gas that surround some of these monsters? Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll be looking at a pair of 2019 papers that talk about this possibility. We have Yang et al., which predicts the properties of black holes that merge this way, and McKernan et al. which proposes a way for us to actually test this hypothesis. Special Thanks to our Patreon Sponsors: Big Bang: Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Christina Oegren Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Tybie Fitzhugh Yurii Konovaliuk Randall Sylvia
How To Capture Ghost Particles ft. Don Lincoln
How To Capture Ghost Particles ft. Don Lincoln
2 сарын өмнө
Explore the Fermilab YT Channel here: mn-zone.info Why is there something rather than nothing? Well the answer may be found in the weakest particle in the universe: the neutrino. For over half a century Fermilab has been the premier particle accelerator facility of the United States and we got to visit with Don Lincoln to explore it’s science and its engineering. These days many of the super-powered geniuses of Fermilab are tackling the mysteries of the neutrino. Why? Because this elusive particle may hold powerful secrets: from the unification of the forces of nature to the biggest question of all: why is there something rather than nothing? Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Hosted by: Matt O'Dowd & Don Lincoln Written by: Matt O'Dowd Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Director of Photography by: Ian Krass Graphics by: Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Editing by: Madeleine Ro Color by: Matt Braunsdorf Post Sound by: Alexander Mandel Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks: Andre Salles Special Thanks to Our Patrons Big Bang Alexander Tamas Andrew & Brenna David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Craig Stonaha Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Do Black Holes Create New Universes?
Do Black Holes Create New Universes?
2 сарын өмнө
Thanks to Brilliant for supporting PBS. Learn more at: brilliant.org/spacetime What if every single black hole that formed in our universe sparked the big bang of a new universe? Cosmological natural selection proposes exactly this - but even better, it claims to be able to test the hypothesis. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Physicists have been struggling for some time to figure out why our universe is so comfy. Why, for example, are the fundamental constants - like the mass of the electron or the strength of the forces - just right for the emergence of life? Tweak them too much and life, stars, galaxies, the universe as we know it wouldn’t exist. In recent episodes we explored one possible explanation for this - the anthropic principle and the idea of the multiverse. If there are countless universes with different fundamental constants, then it’s not surprising that a few exist with the right numbers for life - and certainly not surprising that we find ourselves in one of those good ones. But if you don’t like the anthropic principle - and many scientists don’t - then rest assured, there’s an alternative. You only need to accept two things: that our universe formed inside a black hole, and that universes can evolve. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to our Patreon Sponsors: Big Bang Andrew & Brenna Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Patrick Sutton Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
The Doomsday Argument
The Doomsday Argument
2 сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Since the dawn of humanity around 100 billion people have lived. How many will live in the future of our species? We might hope for a trillion times that if we colonize the galaxy. But a simple statistical argument tells us that the doom of our species is much, much closer. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber In some recent episodes we’ve explored the anthropic principle and seen how it can be used to explain the fact that both our planet and our universe seem very finely tuned to allow the development of life. Our planet and/or universe can be rare and unlikely as long as there are enough other planets and/or universes to stack the odds in favour of our existence. We touched on both the potential power and potential misuse of this principle. Today we’re going to push our luck, and see how this controversial idea can be used to predict the physics of our universe, and also to predict the imminent demise of the human race. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Sponsors BIg Bang Andrew & Brenna Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Vinnie Falco Hypernova chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Julian Tyacke Justin Ash Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Angela Prigge Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Robert Ilardi Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Sipke Schoorstra Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Is The Universe Finite?
Is The Universe Finite?
2 сарын өмнө
Thanks to Brilliant for supporting PBS. Learn more at: www.brilliant.org/spacetime The universe is big, really, really big. Although according to a new paper, it may literally be infinitely smaller than we previously thought. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Every time you walk out the door, light from the Big Bang strikes your face, enters your eyes. This is the cosmic microwave background radiation - the left-over heat-glow from the very early universe. We can’t see this microwave light with our eyes, but we can catch it with even a simple radio antenna. As soon as we became aware of its existence we’ve been feverishly building better and better devices to collect it. Why? Because it encodes so many secrets. And within this light, a group of scientists have just found evidence of the limits of space. A clue that our universe may be actually be finite in size. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll delve into the Nature Astronomy paper that just reported this: Planck evidence for a closed Universe and a possible crisis for cosmology by Eleonora Di Valentino, Alessandro Melchiorri, and Joe Silk. Special Thanks to Our Patreons Big Bang Alexander Tamas Andrew & Brenna Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet Matt Miller Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John Pollock John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Can You Observe a Typical Universe?
Can You Observe a Typical Universe?
3 сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ The moment you started observing reality, you hopelessly polluted any conclusions you might make about it. The anthropic principle guarantees that you are NOT seeing the universe in most typical state. But used correctly, this highly controversial idea can be extremely powerful. So, how do you correctly use the anthropic principle? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to Dr. Flournoy!!! Check out his lectures Below: Particle Physics: mn-zone.info/playPLDlWMHnDwylijo0yfs3xUN9ad6-YZjPLT General Relativity: mn-zone.info/playPLDlWMHnDwyliMevB36wgRbjXhJkoN_RUQ According to the original definitions by Brandon Carter, the weak anthropic principle states that we must live in a place and time in the universe capable of supporting observers - in our case, a habitable biosphere, and the strong anthropic principle, which states that the universe itself must have the conditions necessary for producing environments that, in turn, produce observers. That means the fundamental constants and initial conditions of the universe must be just right to allow nice habitable planets to one day form. Let’s just call it the anthropic principle: we necessarily observe from an environment capable of producing observers; be that environment a planet within a universe or a universe within a multiverse. Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters: Alex Flournoy Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch
Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?
Does Life Need a Multiverse to Exist?
3 сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Life exists in our universe. There we go - one hopefully uncontroversial statement. Therefore our universe is capable of producing and supporting life. How am I going? Two for two? Let’s try for three: therefore there are countless universes. Hmmm. Did I break my streak? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Our universe seems to operate according to a set of fundamental rules that we try to understand and model with the equations of our laws of physics. Those equations always include one or more fundamental constants - simple numbers that set the scale for the equation. We can’t determine the values of these constants from pure theory - we have to measure them in the real universe. These are things like the speed of light, the Planck constant, the masses of the elementary particles, and the constants defining the relative strengths of the fundamental forces - the so-called coupling constants. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Timothy McCulloch Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Eric Kiebler Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Steve Bradshaw Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe
Why We Might Be Alone in the Universe
3 сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Why does it appear, that humanity is the lone intelligence in the universe? The answer might be that planet Earth is more unique than we've previously assumed. The rare earth hypothesis posits exactly this - that a range of factors made Earth exceptionally unusual and uniquely able to produce intelligent life. In upcoming episodes we’ll be exploring the anthropic principle and its two main versions - the strong and the weak anthropic principles. The strong anthropic principle tells us that the observed universe must be able to produce observers - including the contentious idea that this predicts the existence of universes beyond our own. But in today's episode we’re going to focus on the weak anthropic principle. It says that we must find ourselves in a part of the universe capable of supporting us. For example, in a planetary biosphere rather than floating in the void between the galaxies. This may seems tautological, but accounting for this observer selection bias is important to understanding why the universe looks the way it does from our perspective. And the weak anthropic principle is much more useful than that. When combined with the apparent absence of alien civilizations, it may tell us why intelligent life is incredibly rare in our universe. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters BIg Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S joe pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrian Hatch Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Is Time Travel Impossible?
Is Time Travel Impossible?
4 сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Time travel stories are cool because both the past and future are somehow more interesting that the present and because everyone wants a redo. But so far it appears we’re doomed to live consumed by regret in the eternal, boring present. Time marches on, inexorably and only forward. Or so we thought until Einstein came along. His special and general theories of relativity changed the way we think about time forever, and believe it or not, their raw equations permit time travel. They even tell us how to do it. So let’s review the possibilities, and decide how possible they really are. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer & Adriano Leal Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Special Thanks to our Big Bang Supporters Big Bang Alexander Tamas Craig Stonaha David Barnholdt David Nicklas Fabrice Eap John S Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S joe pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst A G Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers Jamie Frederick John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Michael Conroy Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tatiana Vorovchenko Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Loop Quantum Gravity Explained
Loop Quantum Gravity Explained
4 сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ It’s time we talked about loop quantum gravity. What exactly is it? What are the loops? And can it really defeat string theory in our quest for a Theory of Everything? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber The holy grail of physics is to connect our understanding of the tiny scales of atoms and subatomic particles with that of the vast scales of planets, galaxies, and the entire universe. To connect quantum physics with Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Our search for a theory of quantum gravity is a century old, and we’ve talked quite a bit about it already, including what’s probably the lead contender - string theory. But string theory isn’t the only game in town - or so some physicists believe. There may be another way to reconcile the physics of the tiny and the gigantic - another way to a theory of quantum gravity that avoids a lot of conceptual baggage like tiny wiggling strings made of coiled up extra dimensions. That other way would be loop quantum gravity, and today we’re going to learn exactly what it is. Special Thanks to Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters: David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S joe pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst: A G Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Black Hole Harmonics
Black Hole Harmonics
4 сарын өмнө
Learn more at www.brilliant.org/spacetime Black holes are crazy enough on their own - but crash two together and you end up with a roiling blob of inescapable space that vibrates like a beaten drum. And the rich harmonics of those vibrations, seen through gravitational waves, could hold the secrets to the nature of the fabric of spacetime itself. Today on space time journal club we’ll explore the papers that claim to have detected black hole harmonics. We’ll also give you the latest updates on the most recent - in some cases quite bizarre - LIGO detections. Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Murilo Lopes Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber When physicists talk about black holes they’re usually referring to highly theoretical objects - static, unchanging black holes viewed from “infinitely” far away. This makes everything clean and simple enough to attempt the already notoriously complex calculations of black hole physics. But real black holes are created in the violent deaths of massive stars, and there’s nothing clean about that. And we now know that black holes merge - and in the process produce gravitational radiation that we’ve only just managed to detect with the miraculous work of the LIGO and VIRGO gravitational wave observatories. In the instant after its merger, the new, joined black hole looks nothing like the idealized theoretical black hole. Special Thanks To All Our Patreon Supporters Big Bang Supporters Anton Lifshits David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet matt miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S Joe Pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mathew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters A G Adrien Molyneux AlecZero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Bethala DFaulk Frederic Simon Geoffrey Short Graydon Goss Greg Smith James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Griffith John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Justin Lloyd Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
How Many Universes Are There?
How Many Universes Are There?
4 сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the Space Time Merch Store pbsspacetime.com/ The universe is big, but it’s peanuts compared to the eternally inflating multiverse. But just how many universes are there? What are they like? And most importantly, what can they tell us about … aliens? Challenge Answer Winners Steven Mertens David DeLaney Chris Lotery Eneko Fabien Sangouard Ian Bonnell *Please email your selection from the Space Time Merch Store along with your address to pbsspacetime@gmail.com with the subject line “Challenge Question Winner” Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Executive Producers: Eric Brown & Andrew Kornhaber Imagine it: the observable part of our universe is 93 billion light years across, and that’s just a small fraction of the stuff created in our Big Bang. But in the eternal inflation picture, ours is just one among uncountable bubble universes. Bubbles that are continuously appearing and growing within a vastly larger spacetime that itself expands at an exponentially accelerating rate. A greater inflationary spacetime whose expansion never ends. We looked at the bizarre idea of eternal inflation in recent episodes - but we stopped short of exploring the full implications of this proposition. Those implications are, frankly, completely nuts. Some may also be true. Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Matt Miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S Joe Pearce John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: A.G. Adrian Molyneux Alec Zero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Smith James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Michael Kerr John Pollock John Robinson Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sean Warniaha Steve Bradshaw Tim Stephani Tonyface Yurii Konovaliuk
Is Pluto a Planet?
Is Pluto a Planet?
5 сарын өмнө
Sign Up on Patreon to get access to the Space Time Discord! www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Sign up for the mailing list to get episode notifications and hear special announcements! mailchi.mp/1a6eb8f2717d/spacetime You know what a planet is, right? A big round thing that orbits a star. Uh, not so fast. The surprisingly vicious debate over the planetary status of Pluto has given us a fascinating glimpse into what a scientific definition really is. And perhaps the word planet is too vague to be used as a scientific definition at all. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ We love to classify things. Labels help us keep stuff organized in our heads. In science, categorization provides a fast and easy way to know the properties of a member of the group just by knowing what group it belongs to. Chemists group elements on the periodic table, those groups exhibit similar chemical behavior that reflect outer-shell electron number. Biologists group organisms by similar physical characteristics, and this taxonomy reflects genetic relationships. Astronomers are all about space taxonomy. We classify galaxies based on their shape, black holes based on how they feed, stars based on their colour and brightness, and planets by… well, by a set of criteria that has caused more tension and heartbreak than any made-up grouping scheme really should. Because a change in that scheme demoted Pluto from planet to not-planet. Today we’re going to settle whether this was reasonable, and whether we should keep the word “planet” at all. Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Barnholdt David Boyer David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Matt Miller Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrian Molyneux Alec Zero Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Brian Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero Jason John Funai John Michael Kerr John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nick Virtue Nick Wright Paul Rose Scott Gossett Steve Bradshaw Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk
Could We Terraform Mars?
Could We Terraform Mars?
5 сарын өмнө
To discover more go to lego.build/CITYSpace Humanity’s future is glorious. As we master space travel, we’ll hop from one lifeless world to the next. Life will blossom in our path and the galaxy with shimmer with beautiful Earth-like orbs. Hmmm… maybe. This won’t sound so far fetched if we prove we can do it at least once. If we successfully terraform Mars. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Murilo Lopes Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ We already have the technology to bring humans safely to Mars and set up small settlements - or at least could do within a generation. But those settlements will need to be cocooned - shielded against the deadly cold, intense radiation, and the fatal lack of atmospheric pressure. Surely if we want to thrive on Mars - to make it into our second home - these settlers, or their descendants, will need to be able open the airlocks, shed their spacesuits, and step out onto a survivable surface. We’ll need to terraform Mars, as our first step in terraforming the galaxy. Red Iris Mars habitat by James Telfer: bit.ly/JamesTelferRedIris Want Even More Great Space Content? Check out the Exciting Summer of Space Playlist mn-zone.info?list... Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Adrian Molyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Nachefski Nick Virtue Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Taras Vozniuk Tim Jones Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Is Earth's Magnetic Field Reversing?
Is Earth's Magnetic Field Reversing?
5 сарын өмнө
Please Take the PBS Digital Studios Annual Survey Here: www.pbsresearch.org/c/r/ST_YTvideo It's very helpful and you could win a free T-Shirt! Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Earth’s magnetic field protects us from deadly space radiation. What if it were drastically weakened, as a precursor to flipping upside down? I mean, it has before … many, many times.. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Special Thanks to Lathrop Lab at University of Maryland: complex.umd.edu/ Check Out Lathrop Lab's MN-zone Channel to learn more about their 3-meter experiment that models the Earth's core: mn-zone.info/user/-nUrQmFR3pFgEVwW0qAURA.html Spaceship Earth has a literal deflector shield. A geomagnetic field. Lines of magnetic force, forged by currents in the planet’s molten core, erupt from the surface close to the north south geographic poles, connecting to each other to wreath the planet in a dipole field, like a gigantic bar magnet. Magnetic fields exert a force on moving charged particles, causing them to spiral around those force lines. That’s helpful, because Earth is constantly bombarded by very fast moving charged particles, especially coming from the Sun. Our magnetic field deflects the worst of these. Not all planets are so lucky. Mars, with its solid core, has no such shield - and so the red planet’s atmosphere was stripped away by the solar wind billions of years ago. Want Even More Great Space Content? Check out the Exciting Summer of Space Playlist mn-zone.info/playPLoFRvPlmME6FOQtdDKyOUzKJiTE6KXsK3 Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Adrian Molyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Lee Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Nachefski Nick Virtue Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Taras Vozniuk Tim Jones Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
How To Become an Astrophysicist + Challenge Question!
How To Become an Astrophysicist + Challenge Question!
6 сарын өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Do you want to major in Astrophysics? Are you thinking about becoming (or ever just wondered how one becomes) an Astrophysicists? Do you want to know Matt O’Dowd’s origin story? Then buckle up and enjoy the ride and try your astrophysics skill in calculating bubble universes to try to win some free Space Time Swag from the Merch Store. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Murilo Lopes Directed by: Eric Brown Produced By: Kornhaber Brown To Jump to Challenge Question: mn-zone.info/view/bjhjRVpNMWxONWc.html Email Challenge Answer to by 9/9/19: PBSSpacetime@gmail.com Subject line: Eternal Inflation Challenge Want Even More Great Space Content? Check out the Exciting STELLAR Playlist mn-zone.info?list... Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Adrian Molyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Nachefski Nick Virtue Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Taras Vozniuk Tim Jones Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
What Happened Before the Big Bang?
What Happened Before the Big Bang?
6 сарын өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime We actually have a pretty good idea of what might have happened before the Big Bang. That is, as long as we define the Big Bang as the extremely hot, dense, rapidly expanding universe that is described by Einstein’s equations. That picture of the universe is very solid down to about a trillionth of a second after the supposed beginning of time. We can make good guesses down to about 10^-30th of a second. But before that? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Check out the Big Bang and Cosmic Inflation Playlist to learn More mn-zone.info/view/YVBTdGoyWnVYdWc.html Want Even More Great Space Content? Check out the Exciting STELLAR Playlist mn-zone.info/playPL1mtdjDVOoOqY7QPHGa9OppO_pjf91lbV Big Bang Supporters: Alexander Tamas Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Adrian Molyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Dan Warren Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Nachefski Nick Virtue Paul Rose Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Taras Vozniuk Tim Jones Tim Stephani Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Exploring a HUGE Radio Telescope in VR 180
Exploring a HUGE Radio Telescope in VR 180
7 сарын өмнө
This is a VR180 video so pop on your Google Cardboard or VR Headset to be totally immersed in our world! No headset? No problem. Move your mobile phone around and catch the total 180 experience. Have fun looking down from the catwalk! How can you build a telescope that can see the entire night sky without moving its dish? Well in this special episode of Space Time we took a tour of the Arecibo Observatory with a VR 180 camera so you could explore the incredible ingenuity of Arecibo's giant spherical dish that allows it to reflect light from every spot on the sky in a symmetric way. We also talked to Dr. Abel Méndez about Exoplantes and Aliens! Check out our interview with Dr. Abel Méndez about Finding Exoplanets and Talking to Aliens: mn-zone.info/view/UnJIOUx3RDFieDQ.html Hosted by Matt O’Dowd Written by: Matt O’Dowd Directed by: Eric Brown Director of Photography: Eric Brouse Sound: Brett Van Duesen Editing: Brian Nils Johnson Assistant Editing: Daniel Sircar Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime
What Caused the Big Bang?
What Caused the Big Bang?
6 сарын өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Every astronomy textbook tells us that soon after the Big Bang, there was a period of exponentially accelerating expansion called cosmic inflation. In a tiny fraction of a second, inflationary expansion multiplied the size of the universe by a larger factor than in the following 13 and a half billion years of regular expansion. This story seems like a bit of a … stretch. Is there really any mechanism that could cause something like this to happen? What what we’re covering today - the real physics of cosmic inflation. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Dark Energy Playlist: mn-zone.info/playPLsPUh22kYmNA6WUmOsEEi32zi_RdSUF4i The Quantum Vacuum and Hawking Radiation Playlist mn-zone.info/view/T3ZnWnFHeEYzZW8.html Most cosmologists buy some variation of the inflation hypothesis. It seems to very neatly solve some of the biggest questions in cosmology. Those being: why is matter and energy so smoothly spread out across the entire observable universe? And why is the geometry of the universe so flat? Neither should be expected unless the universe expanded much more rapidly early on. We explored these problems in an earlier video - worth a look if you really want to get inflation. Another problem fixed by inflation is the absence of magnetic monopoles - strange particles predicted to have been produced in the early universe. We’ll come back to those another time. Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Deciphering The Vast Scale of the Universe | STELLAR
Deciphering The Vast Scale of the Universe | STELLAR
7 сарын өмнө
Thank you to Draper and its Hack the Moon initiative for supporting PBS Digital Studios | Learn more at wehackthemoon.com. One of the fundamental questions humanity has always asked is how big is our Universe? For much of human history, people believed that Planet Earth was the very center of the entire universe. And Earth is pretty big. But compared the rest of the universe, we are infinitesimally small. The animation in this video the Digital Universe data collection curated by the American Museum of Natural History. The software is used to visualize these datasets is OpenSpace, which is developed through a collaboration between AMNH, Linköping University in Sweden, New York University, and the University of Utah. The software and datasets are open source and are free to download and explore. www.openspaceproject.com/ Credit: From the ESO Supernova to the end of the Universe at 00:52 mn-zone.info/view/aHkyY3htSHVFQXM.html Credit: ESO/L. Calçada/M. Kornmesser/spaceengine.org Credit: Cepheid Variable 4:06 mn-zone.info/view/c1hKQnJSbUhQajg.html NASA, ESA, M. Kornmesser I know, this video is a bit different from most Space Time videos. It's part of a PBS miniseries called Stellar, done in collaboration with Diana Cowern from @physicsgirl and Joe Hanson from @It'sOkayToBeSmart. Over six episodes we travel to telescopes, go inside space research centers, and chat with amazing scientists. Next up is Joe's episode where he explores where life might be outside our solar system. Check out Joe’s episode here: mn-zone.info/view/WG94R09MLU93OXc.html Check out the other episodes in this series: The Quasar from The Beginning of Time | STELLAR www.youtube.com/watch?v=cqCPn… Seeing a Black Hole with a Planet-Sized Telescope | STELLAR www.youtube.com/watch?v=gUpKt… I Visited the First Gravitational Wave Detector! LIGO | STELLAR www.youtube.com/watch?v=jtp71… How We’ll Find the Aliens in Our Solar System! | STELLAR mn-zone.info/view/emZxcFlEVmhYZDg.html Stellar is a part of the PBS Summer of Space. There'll be lots of awesome space related content all summer long on PBS. See what's happening at www.pbs.org/summer-of-space/ #SummerOfSpacePBS #astrophysics #space Hosted by Matt O’Dowd Written by: Sophia Chen, Matt O’Dowd, Andrew Kornhaber, Eric Brown Directed by: Andrew Kornhaber & Eric Brown Producer: Randa Eid Director of Photography: Eric Brouse Sound: Justin Pope & Brett Van Duesen Production Assistant: Marifisia Bel Editing: Pavel Ezrohi, Tom Levin, Rebbecca Senn Graphics: Murilo Lopes Assistant Editing: Daniel Sircar Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime
Did Time Start at the Big Bang?
Did Time Start at the Big Bang?
7 сарын өмнө
Thanks to LastPass for sponsoring PBS DS. You can check out LastPass by going to lastpass.onelink.me/HzaM/2019Q3JulyPBSspace Our universe started with the big bang. But only for the right definition of “our universe”. And of “started” for that matter. In fact, probably the Big Bang is nothing like what you were taught. A hundred years ago we discovered the beginning of the universe. Observations of the retreating galaxies by Edwin Hubble and Vesto Slipher, combined with Einstein’s then-brand-new general theory of relativity, revealed that our universe is expanding. And if we reverse that expansion far enough - mathematically, purely according to Einstein’s equations, it seems inevitable that all space and mass and energy should once have been compacted into an infinitesimally small point - a singularity. It’s often said that the universe started with this singularity, and the Big Bang is thought of as the explosive expansion that followed. And before the Big Bang singularity? Well, they say there was no “before”, because time and space simply didn’t exist. If you think you’ve managed to get your head around that bizarre notion then I have bad news. That picture is wrong. At least, according to pretty much every serious physicist who studies the subject. The good news is that the truth is way cooler, at least as far as we understand it. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Quantum Internet
The Quantum Internet
7 сарын өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime When we finally have a quantum internet you’ll be able to simultaneously like and dislike this video. But we don’t. So I hope you like it. The world is widely regarded as being well and truly into the digital age, also called the information age. No longer are economies and industries solely characterised by the physical goods they produce, and in fact some of the largest companies in the world produce no physical goods at all: digital information is a commodity in its own right. As discussed in a previous episode, this worldwide digital economy is fundamentally reliant on certain cryptographic processes. Currently these processes work in the realm of classical cryptography, but one day soon this may not be enough and so quantum cryptographic methods and algorithms are being developed. However, it’s one thing to design a protocol, it’s something else entirely to build a system to support it. To understand what needs to be done we need to get to the foundations of quantum mechanics - we need to talk about quantum information theory. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Thorium and the Future of Nuclear Energy
Thorium and the Future of Nuclear Energy
7 сарын өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Energy too cheap to meter - that was the promise of nuclear power in the 1950s, at least according to Lewis Strauss chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. That promise has not come to pass - but with some incredible new technologies, perhaps it still could. The question is - should it? Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown If we want to convert mass into energy, fission gives the most bang for our buck. Unfortunately that “bang” can be literal. Use of nuclear energy may risk the proliferation of nuclear weaponry, and there’s also the problem of nuclear waste, and the specter of horrible accidents. This last one was painted in terrifying detail in the recent dramatization of the Chernobyl disaster. Nuclear reactors sound scary because the disasters are pretty epic. However the reality is that far, far more people die from straight up air pollution due to coal-fired power plants than ever died in a nuclear reactor accident. In fact the radioactivity around coal-fired plants is also higher due to the trace but completely uncontained radioactive products of coal burning. But the most compelling attraction is that nuclear power doesn’t directly produce carbon emissions. In fact nuclear power may be our most sure path to reducing carbon emissions and halting climate change. But can we do nuclear power safely enough? There are modern ideas - including the much-hyped thorium reactor - that suggest maybe we can. Before we can understand those we’ll need to review how nuclear reactors work. Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Morgan Hough Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Quasar from The Beginning of Time | STELLAR
The Quasar from The Beginning of Time | STELLAR
8 сарын өмнө
Thank you to Draper and its "We Hack the Moon" initiative for supporting PBS Digital Studios. Learn more at wehackthemoon.com. Check out Physics Girl visit LIGO to see where they discovered Gravitational Waves mn-zone.info/view/anRwNzFOVDBHTmc.html Recently, the oldest quasar ever seen was discovered by the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii, the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, as well as the Large Binocular Telescope in Arizona. In this first episode of the PBS DS mini-series, STELLAR, Matt travels to the top of Mauna Kea to visit the Gemini North telescope and see just how they found this ancient Quasar and it’s massive black hole. Stellar is a brand new miniseries done in collaboration with Dianna Cowern from @Physics Girl and Joe Hanson from @It's Okay To Be Smart Over six episodes we travel to some of the world's most important telescopes, go inside amazing space research centers, and talk with brilliant scientists. Next up, Dianna from Physics Girl visits LIGO observatory in Washington that detected the very first gravitational waves. Then Joe Hanson visits one of the telescopes that was part of world spanning Event Horizon Telescope. You'll be able to see future episodes on the Physics Girl and It’s Okay to be Smart MN-zone channels, as well as the PBS Digital Studios Facebook page. Stellar is a part of the PBS Summer of Space. There will be lots of awesome space-related content all summer long on PBS. See what's happening at www.pbs.org/summer-of-space/ #SummerOfSpacePBS #astrophysics #space Special Thanks to Joy Pollard and Gemini Observatory for all their help making this episode. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by: Sophia Chen, Matt O'Dowd, Andrew Kornhaber, Eric Brown Directed by: Eric Brown and Andrew Kornhaber Producer: Randa Eid Director of Photography: Eric Brouse Sound: Tobi Nova Production Assistant: Anna Bosketti Editing: Pavel Ezrohi Graphics: Murilo Lopes Assistant Editing: Daniel Sircar Produced By: Kornhaber Brown
How Black Holes Kill Galaxies
How Black Holes Kill Galaxies
8 сарын өмнө
To learn to think like a scientist check out Brilliant.org/SpaceTime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Black holes are really only dangerous if you get too close. Ha, who am I kidding. It turns out they may be responsible for ending star formation across the entire universe. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown When we first realized that black holes could have masses of millions or even billions of times that of the sun, it came as a bit of a shock. They were discovered as the driving force behind quasars, where matter is heated to extreme incandescence before its plunge into vast black holes. But if that weren’t enough, we soon realized that every single decent-sized galaxy contains such a supermassive black hole. By the beginning of the 21st century it became clear that black holes and the galaxies that contain them are very closely connected. The bigger the galaxy, the bigger its supermassive black hole. That might not sound surprising. What was weird was how closely they were connected. There’s a tight correlation between the mass the central black hole and the mass of the stars in the galactic bulge - that’s the central ball-like part of a spiral galaxy, or the entirety of an elliptical galaxy, and every bulge contains a supermassive black hole around one-one-thousandth its mass. And there’s an even tighter relationship between the black hole mass and the speed that stars are moving in their random orbits within the galactic bulge - the so-called stellar velocity dispersion - which itself depends of the total mass of the galaxy, including dark matter. Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann John R. Slavik Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Syed Ansar Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Alchemy of Neutron Star Collisions
The Alchemy of Neutron Star Collisions
8 сарын өмнө
Carl Sagan’s famous words: “We are star stuff” refers to a mind-blowing idea - that most atomic nuclei in our bodies were created in the nuclear furnace and the explosive deaths of stars that lived in the ancient universe. In recent years it’s become clear that the truth is even more mind-blowing. Many heavy elements - includes most precious metals - were produced in an even more spectacular event: the collision of neutron stars. In fact, according to a recent study most of the Earth’s supply of these elements was created in a single neutron star merger that took place near our Sun’s birth nebula 80 million years ago before Earth formed. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime #theuniverse #astrophyics #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Scholzer Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown When I was in astrophysicist school they taught us that all of the elements of the periodic table between carbon and iron were produced in onion shells by nuclear fusion in the cores of very massive stars during the last phases of their lives. And that the elements heavier than iron were synthesized in the following supernova explosion. That latter process is well understood - the star’s dead core collapses and protons are converted to neutrons. The surrounding shells ricochet outwards, along with a layer of the iron and nickel core. The latter is blasted by a wave of neutrons, which get rammed into the escaping nuclei. Some of those captured neutrons convert back to protons and so elements all the way up the periodic table can be made. This is the rapid neutron capture or r-process. The rapid part is because neutrons are captured faster than nuclei can decay, making it possible to build very heavy nuclei. Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Quasar Supporters: Mark Heising Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Hatch Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Jones Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Cosmic Dark Ages
The Cosmic Dark Ages
9 сарын өмнө
To Learn more about ExpressVPN, visit: www.expressvpn.com/spacetime We live in the stelliferous era. Somewhere between 10 and 1000 billion trillion stars fill the observable universe with light. But there was a time before the first star ignited. A time we call the cosmic dark ages. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Black Hole Refresher mn-zone.info/view/dk5hRUJiRmJ2Y1k.html #theuniverse #astrophyics #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Havley Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown In astronomy we study things that are very far away. It’s a powerful challenge because even the brightest objects are almost impossibly faint when you view them from the other side of the universe. But there’s an up side. If the light from some space object took billions of years to get to us then we see that object as it was billions of years ago. In this way we can peer back in time and literally see the past in motion. In fact we’re able to see some of the first stars and galaxies to ever form. But if we look beyond, both in distance and in time, there is … nothing. Darkness. For the hundred million years or so between the formation of the first atom and the formation of the first star there were no light sources in the universe. These were the cosmic dark ages. It’s a period of cosmic history rarely discussed because it’s hellishly difficult to observe. Fortunately scientists are devilishly clever. So what do we know about the time before stars? Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters! Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Supporters: Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Antoine Brugier Chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Moyneux Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala DFaulk Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Jonathan Nesfeder Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
Why Quantum Computing Requires Quantum Cryptography
Why Quantum Computing Requires Quantum Cryptography
9 сарын өмнө
Try Audible for 30 days visit www.audible.com/spacetime or text spacetime to 500 500! Quantum computing is cool, but you know what would be extra awesome - a quantum internet. In fact if we want the first we’ll need the latter. And the first step to the quantum internet is quantum cryptography. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Black Hole Refresher mn-zone.info/view/dk5hRUJiRmJ2Y1k.html #cryptography #quantumcomputing #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Leonardo Wille Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown Quantum theory may seem like an obscure subject of questionable relevance to the average person. But in fact much of our technological world depends on our understanding of the quantum properties of the subatomic universe. And soon, perhaps very soon, we’ll be interacting with the weirdness of quantum mechanics even more directly - with the coming of quantum computing and the quantum internet. Quantum computing is a topic that’s that has been well covered, so we’re going to be talking about the quantum internet. Specifically quantum cryptography and quantum key distribution - the foundations of the prospective quantum internet. We may come back to quantum computer in detail - but for now let me show you why their advent will demand a quantum internet. Special Thanks to our Patreon Supporters! Big Bang Supporters: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Supporters: Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Supporters: Antoine Brugier Chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Moyneux Alexander Lazerev Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ratfeast Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Real Science of the EHT Black Hole
The Real Science of the EHT Black Hole
9 сарын өмнө
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime How do you take a picture of a black hole and what can we learn from it? Our first ever actual bona fide photo of a black hole, made by the Event Horizon Telescope and revealed to the world in a press conference on April 10th. Since then it’s got plenty of coverage, because … I mean look at it. It’s a freaking black hole. It’s black, it’s holey, it’s everything we hoped it would be. Now that the giddiness has subsided and I personally have stopped spending hours on end staring at a black spot, we can take a breath and actually look at the real science here and discuss exactly how a picture like this could be taken and what we can learn from it. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Black Hole Refresher mn-zone.info/view/dk5hRUJiRmJ2Y1k.html #Blackhole #astrophysics #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Murilo Ceasar Lopes Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown So, how do you take a picture of a black hole? The beast in question is the supermassive black hole in the center of this - the M87 elliptical galaxy. It has an estimated mass of several billion times that of the Sun, which gives it an event horizon larger than the solar system. M87 is 53 million light years away, so resolving that black hole is equivalent to resolving a grain of stand on the beach in LA - if you’re standing in New York. By comparison, the Hubble Space Telescope would struggle to see a large watermelon over that distance. Big Bang: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar: Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: Antoine Bruguier Chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Hank S John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Moyneux Alexander Lazerev Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nick Virtue Paul Rose Ratfeast Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
No Dark Matter = Proof of Dark Matter?
No Dark Matter = Proof of Dark Matter?
10 сарын өмнө
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime We’ve been failing to detect dark matter for decades. Finally, the latest failure to detect dark matter may have actually proved its existence. One of these is true: either most of the matter in the universe is invisible and formed of something not explained by modern particle physics OR our understanding of gravity is completely broken. The debate over which is true has raged for decades, but may finally have been resolved in an unlikely way: the proof that dark matter exists, and really is an exotic, unknown substance, may have come from the discovery of two galaxies that appear to have no dark matter at all. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll look at the papers that reveal this discovery: Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Refresher to Fully Understand the Holographic Principle? mn-zone.info/playPLsPUh22kYmNCHVpiXDJyAcRJ8gluQtOJR #darkmatter #astrophysics #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Kurtis Ross Directed by Andrew Kornhaber Produced By: Kornhaber Brown The effect of dark matter was first noticed in 1933, when the legendary Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky noticed that the galaxies in the Coma cluster were moving too quickly to remain gravitationally bound within that cluster. He guessed the presence of “dunkle m aterie” - a dark matter invisible to his telescope but whose gravitational effect held the cluster together. As with many of Zwicky’s predictions - like the existence of neutron stars and gravitational lensing - this wasn’t taken seriously until decades later. The hunt for dark matter began in earnest after the early 70s when Vera Ruben, discovered that the rotation rates of spiral galaxies were too fast given the mass of their visible stars alone. They should throw themselves to pieces spinning that quickly - that is, unless, a gravitational force of unseen origin was holding them together. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar: Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: Antoine Bruguier chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Adrien Moyneux Alexander Lazerev Alexey Eromenko Andrewas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short James Flowers James Quintero John Funai John Pollock Jonah Joseph Dillman Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Ryan Jones Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen Yurii Konovaliuk سلطان الخليفي
The Holographic Universe Explained
The Holographic Universe Explained
10 сарын өмнө
We live in a universe with 3 dimensions of space and one of time. Up, down, left, right, forward, back, past, future. 3+1 dimensions. Or so our primitive Pleistocene-evolved brains find it useful to believe. And we cling to this intuition, even as physics shows us that this view of reality may be only a very narrow perception. One of the most startling possibilities is that our 3+1 dimensional universe may better described as resulting from a spacetime one dimension lower - like a hologram projected from a surface infinitely far away. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Need a Refresher to Fully Understand the Holographic Principle? mn-zone.info/playPLsPUh22kYmNCHVpiXDJyAcRJ8gluQtOJR #holographicuniverse #holographicprinciple #spacetime Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber The holographic principle emerged from many subtle clues - clues discovered over decades of theoretical exploration of the universe. Over the past several months on Space Time, we’ve seen those close clues, and we’ve built a the foundations needed to glimpse the true meaning of the holographic principle. We’ve moved from quantum field theory to black hole thermodynamics to string theory. We’ve made a background playlist if you want to start from scratch, and I especially recommend catching last week’s episode. But this is tough material, so let’s do a review. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
The Edge of an Infinite Universe
The Edge of an Infinite Universe
10 сарын өмнө
Have you ever asked “what is beyond the edge of the universe?” And have you ever been told that an infinite universe that has no edge? You were told wrong. In a sense. We can define a boundary to an infinite universe, at least mathematically. And it turns out that boundary may be as real or even more real than the universe it contains. Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime #infinitity #edgeoftheuniverse #spacetime Learn More About Dark Energy Here: mn-zone.info?list... Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Our universe may be infinite. In order to wrap our puny human minds around such a notion we like to come up with boundaries. For example we have the “observable universe” - that patch that we can see, and beyond which light has not yet had time to reach us. It’s boundary is called the particle horizon. Beyond it there exists at a minimum of thousands and possibly infinitely more regions just as large. Our observable universe is like a tiny patch of land in a vast plain. We define its horizon like we might build a little picket fence around our little patch - meaningless from the point of view of the plain, but it makes our patch feel more homey and us less crushingly insignificant. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Andreas Nautsch Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?
Could the Universe End by Tearing Apart Every Atom?
11 сарын өмнө
Of all the unlikely ends of the universe, the Big Rip has to be the most spectacular. Galaxies ripped to shreds, dogs and cat first living together, then tragically separated by the infinitely accelerating expansion of space on subatomic scales. Good thing it's not going to happen. Or is it? Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime #bigrip #endoftheuniverse #spacetime Learn More About Dark Energy Here: mn-zone.info?list... Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber The universe is expanding, and that expansion is accelerating. We don’t know what’s causing that acceleration, but that hasn’t stopped us from giving it a name. We call this unknown influence dark energy. The observed acceleration is, for the most part, nicely described with a constant density of dark energy - the same amount of this stuff in every block of space. Which means if you increase the volume you increase the overall amount of dark energy - hence accelerating expansion. Mathematically we describe a constant energy density with the cosmological constant in the equations of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. But what if dark energy is NOT constant? What if the energy density in each patch of space increases over time? In that case, the acceleration itself could be … accelerating. That would be bad. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي And a round of applause to Andreas Nautsch.
Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?
Is Dark Energy Getting Stronger?
11 сарын өмнө
Learn More about The Great Courses Plus: ow.ly/wvWC30o0QYV Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime The power of Dark Energy may be increasing as the universe ages. Subtle clues are emerging that the accepted model for the nature of dark energy and dark matter may not be all that. We saw the first such clue recently in our recent episode on the Crisis in Cosmology. Today we’re doing a Space Time Journal Club to reveal another clue. We’re looking at a new paper in Nature Astronomy, “Cosmological constraints from the Hubble diagram of quasars at high redshifts” by Risaliti and Lusso. It hints that the cosmological constant may not be so constant after all. In fact it may be increasing. If this is true, then our prediction for the future of our universe looks VERY different, and may involve the entire universe tearing itself to shreds at the subatomic level in the Big Rip. On this edition of Space Time Journal Club we look at: Risaliti & Lusso (2019) "Cosmological Constraints from the Hubble Diagram of Quasars at High Redshifts" www.nature.com/articles/s41550-018-0657-z #darkenergy #darkmatter #spacetime More about The Great Courses Plus: The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. Learn More About Dark Energy Here: mn-zone.info/playPLsPUh22kYmNA6WUmOsEEi32zi_RdSUF4i Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Will You Travel to Space?
Will You Travel to Space?
11 сарын өмнө
Check out Sound Field: mn-zone.info Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Thanks to Matthias Rüby for on-site camera work. instagram.com/matthiasrueby/ The private space-race has been on for a while now. The attention has been on Space-X and Blue Origin with their reusable rockets. But there’s one private space program that’s been doing things a little differently. Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic isn’t building rockets at all - it’s building spaceships. And I got to sit down and talk to him about it. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx... Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd On-site filming by Matthias Rüby Graphics by Aaron Halevy Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Amid the loud rivalry of between Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, amid the extravagance of self-landing rockets and … other displays, Virgin Galactic achieved something no other private space company ever has - in 2014 it became the first to put an actual person in space on board its SpaceShipOne - turning its pilot into the world’s first private astronaut. And then, on February 22nd, the VSS Unity, reached space in a sub-orbital flight carrying the first-ever passenger-astronaut on a private spacecraft. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines
The Impossibility of Perpetual Motion Machines
11 сарын өмнө
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime See Matt in NYC at Caveat March 7th at 9pm: www.caveat.nyc/event/astronaut-training-a-space-camp-game-show-for-lunatics-3-7-2019 Bad ideas come and go in physics. But there’s one bit of nonsense that is perhaps more persistent than all others: the perpetual motion machine. No working perpetual motion machine has ever been experiment verified. All break the laws of thermodynamics. In fact, we classify based on WHICH law of thermodynamics they break. We have perpetual motion machines of the first kind - they violate energy conservation - they pump more energy out than they need to keep running. This includes most of the historical devices. Then there are machines of the second kind - they’re a bit more subtle in their wrongness because break the second law of thermodynamics - extracting energy by reversing entropy. Many modern “free-energy” devices fall into this category. Now the best modern designs are by you - answers to our recent challenge question, which we’ll get to at the end. But first let’s take a look at examples of what other people came up with - this’ll be a fun little journey through some pretty terrible science. Challenge Winners Please Email pbsspacetime@gmail.com, with your choice of product from the Merch Store (pbsspacetime.com/) Connor Grey Creepy Magician Alex Taylor Adrien Romeo Epsilon Centauri Enoae Andrei Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPpUx... Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Kurt Ross Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Designing a perpetual motion machine has a very long history and became quite the craze from the middle ages through the renaissance. The first well-documented design for a perpetual motion machine was from the 12th century. Bhāskara's wheel, named after the Indian mathematician, was embedded with tubes of mercury that would flow from back and forth as the wheel turned. Other types of over-balance wheels followed through to the Renaissance and worked on the same principle. There were also designs that employed the magical-seeming lodestones - magnets. For example, this ramp in which a ball is pulled to the top by a magnet before falling through a hole and rolling to the bottom again. Then there are the self-pumping waterwheels or self-blowing windmills. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background
Secrets of the Cosmic Microwave Background
Жилийн өмнө
You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Hook up an old antenna to your TV and scan between channels. The static buzz you hear is mostly due to the ambient radio produced by our noisy pre-galactic civilization. But around one percent of that buzz is something very different - it’s the cosmic microwave background radiation - the remnant of the heat-glow released when the hot, dense early universe became transparent for the first time. It sound likes random static, but that buzz contains an incredible wealth of hidden information. It holds the secrets of the universe’s fiery beginning, Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time mn-zone.info/view/UFBwVXhvZW9vWms.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Directing by Andrew Kornhaber It’s not surprising that scientists have spent half a century and built multiple satellites to unlock the mysteries of the cosmic microwave background. We’ve delved into its nature before - from its formation 380,000 years after the Big Bang, to its 1964 discovery by Penzias and Wilson with the Holmdel Horn Antenna, to its increasingly accurate mapping across the sky with ever-better satellites. It all culminated in this - the Planck satellite’s map of the CMB. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
Sound Waves from the Beginning of Time
Жилийн өмнө
You can check out Google's Science Journal app at g.co/ScienceJournal Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Email your answers to: pbsspacetime@gmail.com With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question Invisible to the naked eye, our night sky is scattered with the 100s of billions of galaxies the fill the known universe. Like the stars, these galaxies form constellations - hidden patterns that echo the reverberations of matter and light in an epoch long before galaxies ever formed. These are the baryon acoustic oscillations, and they may hold the key to understanding the nature of dark energy. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong mn-zone.info/view/SWhwR2R1bUxScXM.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Directing by Andrew Kornhaber The field of cosmology - the study of the universe on its largest scales - was once the least precise in all of astrophysics. The impossibly vast distances made accurate measurements near impossible. But as our telescopes and our techniques improved over the past few decades, things are now different. We live in the era of precision cosmology, in which we know to stunning detail the properties that govern the very birth, evolution, and end of our universe. We talked about one of those properties in a recent episode - the Hubble constant - and about a growing conflict in its measured value which hints at strange new physics. Today we’ll talk about another measurement that may help resolve this crisis: the baryon acoustic oscillations. They the fossils of the first sound waves in the universe, imprinted in the distribution of galaxies on the sky. And in these patterns we can read the expansion history of the universe. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang: Anton Lifshits coolascats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd Tim Davis Quasar: James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova: chuck zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Perpetual Motion From Negative Mass?
Perpetual Motion From Negative Mass?
Жилийн өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Email your answers to: pbsspacetime@gmail.com With the subject heading: Negative Mass Challenge Question Challenge question: if 1kg of apples is $5 and 2kg is $10, how much is -1kg of apples? The answer? Priceless. Because you could use negative-mass apples to build warp drives, travel in time, and construct a perpetual motion machine. In fact that last one will be today’s actual challenge question. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong mn-zone.info/view/SWhwR2R1bUxScXM.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Directing by Andrew Kornhaber Exotic matter - matter with negative mass - has long been the pipedream of science fiction writers, futurists, and certain rather. . . optimistic researchers. It’s the key to faster than light travel because it’s the only stuff that can curve space in the right way to hold open wormholes and construct warp fields. And if you can travel faster than light you can also travel backwards in time. We’ve been over those already. And we also recently covered a very new use for negative mass: as “dark fluid”, a proposed explanation for both dark matter and dark energy. That episode really got me thinking about the subtleties of negative mass and how it should really behave gravitationally. Turns out it’s complicated, and to answer it we really have to question the very definition of mass. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd TIm Davis Quasar James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone kkm Mark Heising Matthew O’Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Sammy J Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tim Crookham Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
The Crisis in Cosmology
The Crisis in Cosmology
Жилийн өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime The search for a single number: the hubble constant, which is the rate of expansion of our universe, has consumed astronomers for generations. Finally, two powerful and independent methods have refined its measurement to unprecedented precision. The only problem is that they don’t agree. This calls into question some of our most basic assumptions about the universe. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong mn-zone.info/view/SWhwR2R1bUxScXM.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Directing by Andrew Kornhaber In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered the universe. He gave us our first incontrovertible proof that there are galaxies outside the Milky Way by measuring the distances to the spiral nebulae. They were many millions of light years from us -far outside the Milky Way and so must be galaxies in their own right. Combined with the Doppler-shift velocity measurements of Vesto Slipher, Hubble revealed that the galaxies are not only receding from us, but they are receding at a rate proportional to their distance. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Justin Lloyd TIm Davis Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mark Heising Matthew O’Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Buruk Aregawi Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Richard Broman Sammy J Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Our Antimatter, Mirrored, Time-Reversed Universe
Our Antimatter, Mirrored, Time-Reversed Universe
Жилийн өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime The foundations of quantum theory rests on its symmetries. For example, it should be impossible to distinguish our universe from one that is that is the perfect mirror opposite in charge, handedness, and the direction of time. But one by one these symmetries were found to be broken, threatening to break all of physics along with them. Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong mn-zone.info/view/SWhwR2R1bUxScXM.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Linda Huang In his famous lectures on physics, Richard Feynman talks about what it means to expect the universe to be identical in the mirror. For it to be parity-symmetric. He invites us to imagine a clock in a mirror reflection - numbers are backwards, components are all flipped left to right, and it ticks counterclockwise. And then we imagine building that mirror clock in reality. Everything is constructed as though reflected. Numbers get painted backwards. Every screw with right-handed thread or right-spiraling coil is replaced with a left-handed version. Our intuition tells us that the mirror clock should tick in exactly the same way, except counter-clockwise. Our intuition would be wrong. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mark Heising Matthew O’Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Behtala David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jon Folks Jonah Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Richard Broman Sammy J Scott Gossett Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy The Same?
Are Dark Matter And Dark Energy The Same?
Жилийн өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Astronomers are the worst at naming things. Dark energy AND dark matter? Who can remember which is which. But perhaps one astronomer has just fixed it, with a theory that says perhaps actually they are they same stuff. Space Time Journal Club digs into "A Unifying Theory of Dark Energy and Dark Matter" by J. Farnes, 2018 arxiv.org/abs/1712.07962 Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs Previous Episode: Why String Theory Is Wrong mn-zone.info/view/SWhwR2R1bUxScXM.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Jamie Farnes, astrophysicist at Oxford just published a paper suggesting that both dark energy and dark matter may result from the same phenomenon. And it’s pretty wild: negative mass particles continuously popping into existence between the galaxies. This rather extravagant claim resulted in a hysterical response from the media. Our viewers’ perfect blend of bright-eyed curiosity and cynical skepticism led to many MANY requests for us to do an episode on this new result. You got it. Today on Space Time Journal Club, let’s pick apart J.S. Farnes 2018, “A unifying theory of dark energy and dark matter: Negative masses and matter creation within a modified Lambda-CDM framework”. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Jens Theisen John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mark Heising Matthew O’Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Bradley Jenkins Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Crane David Schmidt Dustan Jones Geoffrey Short Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Kyle Hofer Malte Ubl Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Richard Broman Sammy J Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Sigurd Ruud Frivik Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Why String Theory is Wrong
Why String Theory is Wrong
Жилийн өмнө
To learn to think like a scientist check out Brilliant.org/SpaceTime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ Support Space Time on Patreon www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime There’s this idea that beauty is a powerful guide to truth in the mathematics of physical theory. String theory is certainly beautiful in the eyes of many physicists. Beautiful enough to pursue even if it’s wrong? Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe mn-zone.info/view/VXlUcWduS0Qzc3c.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Hermann Weyl once said, “If I have to choose between beauty and truth, I choose beauty.” It was in reaction to a rebuke by Einstein. Weyl had tried to explain electromagnetism by imposing on Einstein’s general theory of relativity very first gauge symmetry, Weyl invariance. Einstein pointed out it the proposal led to some absurd results, and so the idea went down in flames. It just couldn’t be true, despite the elegance of the math. But sometimes it can be hard to let go of the sense that a beautiful theory must be right. Could this also be the case with string theory? Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Supporters David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Danton Spivey Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Mark Heising Matthew O'Connor Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Crane Dustan Jones Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero Jinal Doshi JJ Bagnell John Webber Jinal Doshi Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe
Quantum Physics in a Mirror Universe
Жилийн өмнө
To learn to think like a scientist check out Brilliant.org/SpaceTime Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ When you look in mirror, and see what you think is a perfect reflection. You might be looking at universe whose laws are fundamentally different. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Did Life on Earth Come from Space? mn-zone.info/view/UkVsMjBybFpHVHc.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) When we think about symmetry, the first thing that comes to mind is mirror symmetry. Butterflies, Rorschach tests, and classically attractive faces all look the same when flipped left-to-right. In physics, a symmetry is when the laws of physics are unchanged due to some transformation of coordinates. We’ve seen examples where it is - the universe is symmetric to coordinate shifts in space, time, and even the rather abstract phase of the wave function. So it might be surprising to learn that with all the weird ways in which the universe IS symmetric, it’s NOT entirely symmetric under this most intuitive one. The laws of physics work differently in the universe of the mirror. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Matthew O’Connor Edmund Fokschaner Donal Botkin Danton Spivey Mark Heising Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Daniel Lyons David Crane Dustan Jones Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes James Quintero JJ Bagnell John Webber Jinal Doshi Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Ratfeast Richard Broman Scott Gossett Shawn Azman Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Did Life on Earth Come from Space?
Did Life on Earth Come from Space?
Жилийн өмнө
Check out the new Space Time Merch Store! pbsspacetime.com/ How did life on Earth get started? Did life on Earth originate on another planet? Either Mars, or in a distant solar system? Could Earth life have spread to have seeded life elsewhere? Let’s see what modern science has to say about the plausibility of panspermia. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: 'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens mn-zone.info/view/d0lDT2xhUU9wTTA.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Life existing on Earth is odd. The oldest fossils are now dated to only a few hundred million years after the moment Earth first became habitable. Is it really reasonable to imagine that evolution turned an unliving chemical soup into the first true living cells in that geological eye-blink? Well, maybe. But the discovery of the early appearance of life on Earth was definitely a big “huh, that’s weird” moment. And it’s inspired some creative thinking. For example, what if the first genesis of life - abiogenesis - is actually incredibly unlikely - so unlikely that it only happened once in the entire galaxy. And that “once” was not on Earth. What if primitive life arrived on Earth after having traveled vast distances across the Milky Way. Some scientists think this is the case. This is the Panspermia hypothesis. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Richard Senegor Shane Robinson Antonio Park Faisal Saud William James Sidis Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Mayank M, Methrotra Dean Fuqua ColeslawPurdie Joel Brinton James Flowers Vinnie Falco Josh Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Brent Mullins Danton B Spivey Science Via Markets Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Mark Heising Donal Botkin Shaun Williams Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Vitaly Kovalenko Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alex Soto Alexey Eromenko Antonio Ruiz Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Carlo Mogavero Conor Dillon Daniel Lyons David Crane David Matteson Dustan Jones Florian Stinglmayr Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jessica F Jinal Doshi Jon Folks John Pettit Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kenneth F Leonard Kirk Mathews Loro Lukic Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Marc Lagarde Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nathan Hitchings Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Peeter Durocher Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tim Stephani Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens
'Oumuamua Is Not Aliens
Жилийн өмнө
To learn to think like a scientist check out Brilliant.org/SpaceTime To repeat the space time maxim: it’s never aliens … until it is. So let’s talk about ‘oumuamua. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality? mn-zone.info/view/enRGb3Z3Q2FPaWs.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Bialy & Loeb (2018) arxiv.org/pdf/1810.11490 Micheli et al. (2018) go.nature.com/2A9FncQ Last year a visitor came to our inner solar system. To us it looked like a faint spot of light, moving quickly relative to the fixed stars. We’d seen similar things countless times before - lonely rocks, remnants from the formation of our solar system, drifting on their endless orbits around the sun and faintly glimmering with its reflected light. Nothing unusual about such asteroids and comets, but what made this object special was its trajectory. It was not in orbit around the Sun at all. Rather, it appeared to have fallen in from interstellar space, and was on its way back out again. The object is 1I/2017 U1, better known as ‘Oumuamua. It’s the first chunk of interstellar space debris we’ve ever spotted passing through our solar system. It caused a justifiable stir at the time. Hell, WE even did an episode on it. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Supersymmetric Particle Found?
Supersymmetric Particle Found?
Жилийн өмнө
With the large hadron collider running out of places to look for clues to a deeper theory of physics, we need a bigger particle accelerator. We have one - the galaxy. Watch Two Cents here! mn-zone.info/user/L8w_A8p8P1HWI3k6PR5Z6w.html You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Physics is currently in a weird place. Historically, no matter how crazy our theories got, there were always new ways to test them. Your theory predicts a new particle? Build a particle accelerator big enough to see it. But once your collider spans entire countries - like the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland - there’s only so much larger you can go - at least on the surface of the Earth. The LHC has thoroughly tested the standard model of particle physics. The last component of that model - the Higgs boson - was verified in 2013. But the standard model isn’t the end of the story - there MUST be a more fundamental theory that explains the origins of this rich family of particles. Proposals for such grand unified theories proliferate, unconstrained by even the tiniest hint of new physics from the LHC. Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Why String Theory is Right | Space Time mn-zone.info/view/aVRUYTlZY1RlMWs.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Why String Theory is Right
Why String Theory is Right
Жилийн өмнө
You can learn more about The Great Courses Plus here: ow.ly/3qDN30hIvdb Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Some see string theory as the one great hope for a theory of everything - that it will unite quantum mechanics and gravity and so unify all of physics into one glorious theory. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Make Sure To Check Out The Great Courses Plus "The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally." Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality? mn-zone.info/view/enRGb3Z3Q2FPaWs.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Why has string theory been the obsession of a generation of theoretical physicists? What exactly is so compelling about tiny, vibrating strings? In our last string theory episode I talked about what these things really are, and covered some history. In short: the strings of string theory are literal strands and loops that vibrate with standing waves. Simply by changing the vibrational mode you get different particles - analogous to how different vibrational modes on guitar strings gives different notes. And, by the way, strings exist in 6 compact spatial dimensions on top of the familiar 3. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality?
Are Virtual Particles A New Layer of Reality?
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Let me tell you a story about virtual particles. It may or may not be true. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Will We Ever Find Alien Life? mn-zone.info/view/dWhKOWxKUHQwOWs.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossell and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Sometimes our mathematical hacks point to strange new aspects of reality. For example Max Planck used a quantization trick to figure out the spectrum of light emitted by hot objects. The quantization part of his math trick was meant to disappear in the final form of equation, but it remained - it proved fundamental. That math hack turned out to represent the very real quantum nature of the photon. This insight let to the discovery of all quantum physics. A more recent mathematical hack is the virtual particle. They started out as a trick to make impossible calculations in quantum field theory possible. Possible, at least, for the sort of people who can do quantum field theory. So will virtual particles also prove to represent a new underlying aspect of reality? We’re going to go pretty deep in this one - but it will bring us to a better understanding of the quantum nature of reality, so stick with me. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang David Nicklas CoolAsCats Anton Lifshits Fabrice Eap Justin Lloyd Juan Benet Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua James Flowers Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Joseph Salomone John Hofmann Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Brent Mullins Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Will We Ever Find Alien Life?
Will We Ever Find Alien Life?
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE You can learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime The silence of the galaxy and the resulting Fermi Paradox has perplexed us for nearly 50 years. But our most recent surveys of the Milky Way finally allow us to draw scientific conclusions about the depressingly persistent absence of aliens. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: What are the Strings in String Theory? mn-zone.info/view/azZUV08tRVNDNkE.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) When Enrico Fermi uttered the words, “Where is everybody?” he was succinctly summarizing what has become known as the Fermi paradox. In short: in a galaxy of hundreds of billions of stars, each of which having billions of years to spawn life and civilization, isn’t it odd that none have made themselves apparent to us. Enrico Fermi was, supposedly, using this as an argument against the plausibility of interstellar travel. If aliens can travel between the stars, why haven’t they visited? But the paradox is much broader than this. There are several ways that an advanced civilization could give away their presence. Radio transmissions, robotic probes, or star-blotting solar arrays. A series of very recent surveys of our galaxy reveal none of the above, while at the same time proving the abundance of potentially habitable worlds. The Fermi paradox has become only more paradoxical, and these surveys are finally powerful enough to draw some serious conclusions about the rarity of advanced civilizations AND about the chance of us ever becoming one. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Justin Lloyd Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Dan Harris Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
What are the Strings in String Theory?
What are the Strings in String Theory?
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE To learn more about 23andMe head to 23andme.com/spacetime Why strings? What are they made of? How did physicists even come up with this bizarre idea? And what’s all this nonsense of extra dimensions? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Computing a Universe Simulation mn-zone.info/view/MEdMZ1p2VENiYUE.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) In physics we like to reduce down our description of the mechanics of reality to the simplest possible form. We expect the most fundamental machinery to have the fewest possible moving parts - or free parameters. This is why the standard model of particle physics is considered incomplete. Its equations predict many things with stunning accuracy, but they first require us to tune many mathematical knobs and dials. We need to use physical measurement to fix 19 free parameters like the masses of particles. And then there’s gravity, which doesn’t fit into the standard model at all. So surely there exists a deeper set of cogs and wheels - a theory that brings all observable phenomena into the same mechanical framework. That would be a theory of everything, and this is the great hope of string theory. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Justin Lloyd Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Juan Benet Quasar Dean Fuqua James Flowers Mark Rosenthal Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Dan Harris Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Martha Hunt Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Fabian Olesen Fauzan Ardhana Greg Allen Greg Weiss Jack Frosch James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Joseph Emison Josh Thomas Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nathan Leniz Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano Shawn Azman Tommy Mogensen سلطان الخليفي
Computing a Universe Simulation
Computing a Universe Simulation
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Physics seems to be telling us that it’s possible to simulate the entire universe on a computer smaller than the universe. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Space Time Challenge Winners Jin Du Loren Booker Kevin Selva Prasanna May Awbin John Reza Ian Grams Challenge Winners: Please PBSspacetime@gmail.com with your name, address, US t-shirt size - small, medium, large, extra large, or extra-extra-large and let us know which T you’d like. Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: How to Detect Extra Dimensions mn-zone.info/view/M0hZdzZ2UFI5cVU.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) I’m not saying the universe is a simulation. I mean it might be - I’m just not saying it. And perhaps it doesn’t make any difference. Even if this is the prime, the original physical universe, rather than somewhere deep in a simulation nest, we can STILL think of our universe’s underlying mechanics as computation. Imagine a universe in which the most elementary components are stripped of all properties besides some binary notion of existence or non-existence. Like, if the tiniest chunks of spacetime, or chunks of quantum fields, or elements in the abstract space of quantum-mechanical states can either be full or empty. These elements interact with their neighbors by a simple set of rules, leading to oscillations, elementary particles, atoms, and ultimately to all of the emergent laws of physics, physical structure, and ultimately the universe. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Justin Lloyd Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
How to Detect Extra Dimensions | Space Time
How to Detect Extra Dimensions | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE On this Space Time Journal Club we look at how gravitational waves can be used to search for extra dimensions of space! To learn more about CuriosityStream you can go to: www.curiositystream.com/space... and use the code "spacetime" during the sign-up process. "Limits on the number of spacetime dimensions from GW170817" Pardo, Fishbach, Holz & Spergel 2018 arxiv.org/abs/1801.08160 You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics mn-zone.info/view/WU5FQmh3aW1KV3M.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Justin Lloyd Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics | Space Time
Quantum Gravity and the Hardest Problem in Physics | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Between them, general relativity and quantum mechanics seem to describe all of observable reality. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: How Much Information is in the Universe? mn-zone.info/view/WHhWbEdBRlg3dkE.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) The first few decades of the 20th century was a time of miracles for physics. First, Einstein’s relativity utterly changed the way we think about space, time, motion and gravity. Then the quantum revolution of the 20s and 30s overturned all of our intuitions about the subatomic world. Together, general relativity and quantum mechanics have allowed us to explain nearly every fundamental phenomenon observed, and have predicted many unexpected phenomena that have since been verified. And yet the two theories contradict each other in fundamental ways. In the century since that golden era of physics, we’ve been trying to reconcile the two … without success. But today on space-time I’m going to begin our discussion of the great quest for this union - the quest for a theory of quantum gravity, and for a theory of everything. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
How Much Information is in the Universe? | Space Time
How Much Information is in the Universe? | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE There’s quite a bit of stuff in the universe, to put it mildly. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: The Black Hole Entropy Enigma mn-zone.info/view/QWI4Skl6Y2t4X00.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Twitter: @pbsspacetime Instagram: @matt_of_earth Hundreds of billions of galaxies, each with hundreds of billions of stars, each with … rather a lot of particles in them. And then there’s all the stuff that isn’t stars. The dark matter, black holes, planets, and the particles and radiation in between the stars and galaxies. Stuff EVERYWHERE! But… is the universe actually made of stuff? An increasing number of physicists view the universe - view reality as informational at its most fundamental level. But how big a memory bank would you even need to compute a universe? Seriously, let’s figure it out. Computational Capacity of the Universe (2001), by Seth Lloyd arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0110141 Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
The Black Hole Entropy Enigma | Space Time
The Black Hole Entropy Enigma | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thanks to CuriosityStream for supporting PBS Digital Studios. You can learn more at www.curiositystream.com/spacetime and use the code "spacetime" during the sign-up process. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Is There Life on Mars? mn-zone.info/view/Vm1FWTZUNVdjLVE.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Black Holes should have no entropy, but they in fact hold most of the entropy in the universe. Let’s figure this out. If black holes exist - which, apparently, they do - they contradict other theories in physics as sacred as general relativity. They cause all sorts of problems with quantum theory, which we’ve talked about and will review in a sec. But they also present an apparent conflict with the notion of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. It was while pondering that conflict that Jacob Bekenstein realized an incredible connection between black holes and thermodynamics. His insight launched an entire new way of thinking about the universe in terms of information theory, and ultimately led to the holographic principle. Which I promise we’re getting to and we’re almost there. We just need to understand string theory first and to understand that, you’re going need to know about why Black Holes contain most of the universe’s entropy. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Brent Mullins Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
Is There Life on Mars? | Space Time
Is There Life on Mars? | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE There is no greater hero in our search for life on mars than a little robot named Opportunity. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: How Will the Universe End? mn-zone.info/view/UWc0dmItS0g1RjQ.html What does the future of our Universe hold? Alas Lewis & Barnes mn-zone.info/view/aENYUm53cG1KVGM.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen & Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Otherwise landed in 2004 with its twin - MER-A, better known as Spirit. These six-wheeled golf-cart-sized robots were Swiss army knives of geological lab instruments. Opportunities most spectacular discovery where these cute little so-called berries. They turned out to be concretions of hematite - which means they were grown in wet environments with dissolved iron. Wet means water FYI. Both rovers found a variety of other geological signs of past water activity, really solidifying the picture of Mars' much more liquid past. Both rovers were supposed to shut down after around 90 days as Martian dust accumulated on their solar panels, cutting of their power supply. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Eugene Lawson John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss Ian Anoan James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
How Will the Universe End? | Space Time
How Will the Universe End? | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thanks to Wix for supporting PBS Digital Studios. You can go to bit.ly/2o1DSHZ to get started on Wix Code! In 100 trillion years the era of stars will be over. We live in an unusual age - the age when the stars still shine. We should count ourselves lucky - nearly all of future history will be dark. But events will still unfold in that long, cooling darkness, and civilizations may endure. So how will the universe and its far-future denizens spend eternity? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction mn-zone.info/view/N1V3aWdZNFNqS1k.html What does the future of our Universe hold? Alas Lewis & Barnes mn-zone.info/view/aENYUm53cG1KVGM.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) In 100 trillion years the last star in the universe will expand the final atoms of its hydrogen fuel and settle quietly into a dim white dwarf, before slowly fading to black over as it radiates away its remnant heat. The era of stars will be over. That 100 trillion years is 10,000 times the current age of the universe, and so the days of starlight and warmth have a way to go. But even when they are done, the universe will be young in comparison to the long, dark ages to follow. In fact our universe will spend almost all of its infinite time in darkness, slowly crawling towards maximum entropy and ultimate heat death. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Eugene Lawson John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexander Rodriguez Alexey Eromenko Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss Ian Anoan James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction | Space Time
Quantum Theory's Most Incredible Prediction | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Let’s talk about the best evidence we have that the theories of quantum physics truly represent the underlying workings of reality. You can signup for your trial to The Great Courses Plus at: ow.ly/bugR30hIvbu Quantum field theory is notoriously complicated, built from mind-bendingly abstract mathematics. But are the underlying rules of reality really so far from human intuition? Or are physicists just showing off? For better or worse, the physicists are definitely on the right track. We know this because the predictions of quantum field theory stand up to experimental test time and time again. The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get? mn-zone.info/view/Y096YUdFQUd6ekE.html Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Luke Maroldi Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats David Nicklas Fabrice Eap Quasar Dean Fuqua Mark Rosenthal Mayank M. Mehrota Roman Pinchuk Tambe Barsbay Vinnie Falco Hypernova Chuck Zegar Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Eugene Lawson John Hofmann Jordan Young Joseph Salomone Matthew O’Connor Ratfeast Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Alexey Eromenko Asa Hood Benoit Pagé-Guitard Brandon Cook Brandon Labonte Daniel Lyons David Crane Deborah Whittaker Fabian Olesen Greg Allen Greg Weiss Ian Anoan James Flowers James Hughes JJ Bagnell Jon Folks Kevin Warne Malte Ubl Mark Vasile Nicholas Rose Nick Virtue Scott Gossett Shannan Catalano سلطان الخليفي
How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get? | Space Time
How Close To The Sun Can Humanity Get? | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Parker Space Probe successfully launched on August 12!!! parkersolarprobe.jhuapl.edu/ Help Us with the PBS Digital Studios Survey: to.pbs.org/2018YTSurvey Check Out PBS ReInventors: mn-zone.info You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon mn-zone.info/view/S1IyM2FNaklISVk.html The Sun: an entity worshipped as a god throughout time and across cultures. The source of all life and sustenance for our little blue space rock, and also a force of unthinkable destructive power. But soon humanity will reach out its collective hand and come closer to touching the Sun than we ever have before with the launch of the Parker Solar Probe. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray سلطان الخليفي Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon
Reversing Entropy with Maxwell's Demon
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Can a demon defeat the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy mn-zone.info/view/a2ZmZnkxMnVRN2c.html Entropy is sometimes described as a measure of disorder or randomness. The second law of thermodynamics - the law that entropy must, on average, increase - has been interpreted as the inevitability of the decay of structure. This is … misleading. As we saw in our episode on the physics of life, structure can develop in one region even as the entropy of the universe rises. Ultimately, entropy is a measure of the availability of free energy - of energy that isn’t hopelessly mixed in thermal equilibrium. Pump energy into a small system and complexity can thrive.. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray سلطان الخليفي Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy
The Misunderstood Nature of Entropy
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics has been credited with defining the arrow of time. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model mn-zone.info/view/VjVrZ3J1VWpWQnM.html Entropy is surely one of the most intriguing and misunderstood concepts in all of physics. The entropy of the universe must always increase - so says the second law of thermodynamics. It’s a law that seems emergent from deeper laws - it’s statistical in nature - and yet may ultimately be more fundamental and unavoidable than any other law of physics. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray سلطان الخليفي Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook Malte Ubl
Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model
Quantum Invariance & The Origin of The Standard Model
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE In simple terms a gauge theory is one that has mathematical parameters, or “degrees of freedom” that can be changed without affecting the predictions of the theory. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model? mn-zone.info/view/MG1YVzF6UGx4RUU.html&t As far as we can tell, mathematics is the language in which the universe is written. Our laws of physics are equations of motion, along with some associated constants. Previously we’ve talked a bit about the symmetries of these equations, and how they lead us to conserved quantities. But this is just the tip of the theoretical iceberg - sometimes investigating the symmetries of these equations predicts entirely new physics. The most remarkable example of this is the standard model of particle physics. You know, the most accurate physical theory in all of human history. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray سلطان الخليفي Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook Malte Ubl
Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?
Will A New Neutrino Change The Standard Model?
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thanks to Curiosity Stream for supporting PBSDS. You can get the first 60 days free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/spacetime and use the code "spacetime" during the sign-up process. Since the discovery of the Higgs boson, physicists have searched and searched for any hint of new particles. That search has been fruitless. Until, perhaps, now. Today on Space Time Journal Club we’ll look at a paper that reports a compelling hint of a new particle outside the standard model: the sterile neutrino. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: How Asteroid Mining Will Save Earth mn-zone.info/view/VEY2R1JQYWVMYms.html Regular neutrinos are a bit aloof. They don’t interact by the electromagnetic or strong nuclear forces - only by the weak nuclear force and gravity. They are so weakly interacting that they pass through matter like it isn’t there. To have a 50-50 chance of stopping any given neutrino you’d need a wall of lead … one light year thick! If regular neutrinos are aloof, then sterile neutrinos are the complete loners. They don’t even interact via the weak interaction. Even so, detection of sterile neutrinos would be incredibly important. Besides being the first expansion of the standard model family since the Higgs boson, sterile neutrinos are a candidate for dark matter, and their existence would have had a huge influence on the expansion of the early universe. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook Malte Ubl
How Asteroid Mining Will Save Earth
How Asteroid Mining Will Save Earth
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thanks to Audible for supporting PBSDS. To start your free 30 day trial and receive a free audiobook visit www.audible.com/spacetime or text spacetime to 500 500! The days of oil may be numbered, but there’s another natural resource that’s never been touched, Asteroids. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Black Hole Information Paradox mn-zone.info/view/OVhrSEJtRS1OMzQ.html The richest person in modern history, was John Davison Rockefeller, His net worth was three times greater than that of our richest tech billionaires, inflation adjusted. And the source of that fortune? Timely exploitation of a vast, then-untapped natural resource: oil. Well, the days of oil may be numbered, but there’s another natural resource that’s never been touched, is effectively inexhaustible, and has a dollar value large enough to disrupt entire economies. That resource? Asteroids, and the precious materials they contain. Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson predicts that the world’s first trillionaire will be an asteroid miner. The Rockefellers of the 21st century may be less like the internet and tech moguls of the 20th century and more like the old-school oil barons of the 19th century. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Vinnie Falco Hypernova Donal Botkin Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook Malte Ubl
The Black Hole Information Paradox
The Black Hole Information Paradox
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thank you to Brilliant for sponsoring this episode! To find out more, visit: brilliant.org/SpaceTime We’ve established by now that black holes are weird. The result of absolute gravitational collapse of a massive body: a point of hypothetical infinite density surrounded by an event horizon. At that horizon time is frozen and the fabric of space itself cascades inwards at the speed of light. Nothing can travel faster than light, and so nothing can escape from below the event horizon- not matter, not light, not even information. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed mn-zone.info/view/SEYtOUR5NmlCXzQ.html These ideas are pretty mind-blowing, but as crazy as black holes are, they’re also kind of … simple. Don’t get me wrong; the math is complicated. But the objects themselves are simple. In fact every black hole in the universe, no matter how it formed or what happened to it afterwards, can be perfectly described with only three properties. Those properties are mass, angular momentum, and electric charge. Or at least this is the proposition behind the famous no-hair conjecture, or no-hair theorem. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
What Survives Inside A Black Hole?
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE You can get a free trial of The Great Courses Plus at ow.ly/c7tI30hIva3 We’ve established by now that black holes are weird. The result of absolute gravitational collapse of a massive body: a point of hypothetical infinite density surrounded by an event horizon. At that horizon time is frozen and the fabric of space itself cascades inwards at the speed of light. Nothing can travel faster than light, and so nothing can escape from below the event horizon- not matter, not light, not even information. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed mn-zone.info/view/SEYtOUR5NmlCXzQ.html These ideas are pretty mind-blowing, but as crazy as black holes are, they’re also kind of … simple. Don’t get me wrong; the math is complicated. But the objects themselves are simple. In fact every black hole in the universe, no matter how it formed or what happened to it afterwards, can be perfectly described with only three properties. Those properties are mass, angular momentum, and electric charge. Or at least this is the proposition behind the famous no-hair conjecture, or no-hair theorem. Written and hosted by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US, UK, and Australian markets. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally.
Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
Why Quantum Information is Never Destroyed
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE If you have perfect knowledge of every single particle in the universe, can you use the laws of physics to rewind all the way back to the Big Bang? Is the entire history of the universe perfectly knowable? Or has information somehow lost along the way? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality mn-zone.info/view/MDRFUlNiMDZkT2c.html The laws of physics are equations of motion. They are mathematical rules that dictate how systems evolve in time. Newton’s equations for classical mechanics, Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetism, and the Schrodinger equation for quantum mechanics. These laws can be used to predict how the universe will evolve into the future. They are deterministic; perfect knowledge of a system in the present perfectly predicts how the system will change in the next instant, and the instant after that, ad infinitum. But determinism in the forward-time direction does NOT guarantee that the same laws can perfectly predict the past. And yet this sort of deterministic symmetry - time-reversal symmetry - is essential for information itself to be conserved. Today we learn why conservation of information is such a fundamental requirement of quantum mechanics. In a future episode we’ll see how this law might be broken by black holes. Here's that fun proof that independent quantum states can't evolve into the same quantum state while preserving unitarity! Apologies for the unavoidable technical notation, but a quick college course in introductory quantum mechanics will get you up to speed in no time :-P bit.ly/2Lpm6sL Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality
Noether's Theorem and The Symmetries of Reality
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE To learn more about Brilliant, you can go to brilliant.org/spacetime/ Conservation laws are among the most important tools in physics. They feel as fundamental as you can get. And yet they’re wrong - or at least they’re only right sometimes. These laws are consequences of a much deeper, more fundamental principle: Noether’s theorem. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: How Gaia Changed Astronomy Forever www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jdy09... Conservation laws are the cheat codes of physics. They make it possible to solve physics problems that would otherwise be painfully difficult, or even impossible. More than cheat codes - conservation laws are close to the source code - they emerge from profound and simple truths about the basis of reality. They emerge from the fundamental symmetries of nature. The connection between conservation laws and symmetry is encapsulated in Noether’s theorem. But before we dive into this extremely elegant idea, let’s talk about the seeming paradox that inspired it, and the genius who discovered it. Written and hosted by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
How Gaia Changed Astronomy Forever | Space Time
How Gaia Changed Astronomy Forever | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE The great advances in any science tend to come in sudden leaps. April 25th of 2018 marks the beginning of just such a leap for much of astronomy. In the early hours of the morning, the Gaia mission’s second data release dropped. Our understanding of our own galaxy will never be the same again. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Star at the End of Time mn-zone.info/view/LWlXR3RRMDNPWk0.html The Gaia satellite was launched in late 2013, entirely built and operated by the European Space Agency. It’s primary goal is to map the stars of the Milky Way with a scale and precision orders of magnitude greater than ever before. Gaia’s predecessor, Hipparcos, catalogued 120 thousand stars, Gaia blows it out of the water with positions, colors and brightnesses of nearly 1.7 billion stars. Gaia can see orders of magnitude fainter and further away than previous missions. But its greatest superpower is its precise astrometry - Gaia can pin down a star’s position to the equivalent of a human hair’s width at 1000 km. That’s one-to-two thousand times smaller than the resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
The Star at the End of Time | Space Time
The Star at the End of Time | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE If we, or any conscious being is around to witness the very distant future our galaxy, what will they see? How long will life persist as the stars begin to die? Subscribe to Hot Mess: mn-zone.info/user/saEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw.html You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Black Hole Swarms mn-zone.info/view/VVZodEtBbnAzRzQ.html For the sake of argument, let’s say that humanity survives the several ends of the world that await us. We somehow persist the gradual heating of our Sun and the evaporation of our oceans. Our descendants cling to existence through countless generations we watch the Andromeda galaxy merge with the Milky Way, forming a vast elliptical galaxy. We seek refuge in the outer solar system as the Sun finally expands into a red giant - twice! And finally our heirs or successors find new homes among the stars after the Sun’s final death and transformation into a dim white dwarf. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Shannan Catalano Brandon Cook
Black Hole Swarms | Space Time
Black Hole Swarms | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE It’s been conjectured that the center of the Milky Way is swarming with tens of thousands of black holes. And now we’ve actually seen them. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Using Stars to See Gravitational Waves mn-zone.info/view/eG53WHlQVV9wczA.html This episode of Space Time Journal Club looks at the paper: A density cusp of quiescent X-ray binaries in the central parsec of the Galaxy by Hailey, Mori, Bauer, Berkowitz, Hong & Hord (2018) www.nature.com/articles/nature25029 The core of our galaxy is a wild place. The stars are so densely packed that the night sky would be 500 times brighter. A supermassive black hole, 4 million times the mass of our Sun lurks in the center. It flings nearby stars into extreme slingshot orbits. It consumes anything that gets too close is consumed, burping a blast of X-rays. We know these things because we see them from our comfortable vantage point 28,000 light years out in the galactic disk. But there’s one particularly terrible feature of the core of our galaxy that, until now, has only been has only be hypothesized: The central few light years of the Milky Way is thought to contain a vast swarm of smaller black holes that have rained in from the surrounding galaxy. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Shannan Catalano Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen TJMadison Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Brandon Cook Daniel Lyons
Using Stars to See Gravitational Waves
Using Stars to See Gravitational Waves
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Thank you to Brilliant for sponsoring this episode! To find out more, visit: brilliant.org/SpaceTime Now that gravitational waves are definitely a thing, it’s time to think about some of the crazy things we can figure out with them. In some cases we’re going to need a gravitational wave observatory - in fact, we've already built one. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Physics of Life (ft. It's Okay to be Smart & PBS Eons!) mn-zone.info/view/R2NmTFpTTDdZR3c.html We are at the cusp of a golden age of gravitational wave astronomy. We’ve already talked about the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory-LIGO, and the first discovery of gravitational waves here. Those videos came out almost two years ago. A lot has happened since then. First, an update on LIGO. In its two and a half years of operation, LIGO has observed five certain black hole-black hole mergers. These events have been consistently surprising. Reinterpreting Low Frequency LIGO/Virgo Events as Magnified Stellar-Mass Black Holes at Cosmological Distances Broadhurst, Diego & Smoot (2018) arxiv.org/abs/1802.05273 On Stellar-Mass Black Hole Mergers in AGN Disks Detectable with LIGO McKernan et al. 2018 arxiv.org/abs/1702.07818 Stars as Resonant Absorbers of Gravitational Waves McKernan, Ford, Kocsis & Haiman arxiv.org/abs/1405.1414 Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Fabrice Eap Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen TJMadison Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Brandon Cook Daniel Lyons
The Physics of Life (ft. It's Okay to be Smart & PBS Eons!) | Space Time
The Physics of Life (ft. It's Okay to be Smart & PBS Eons!) | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE It's OK to be Smart - Where Did Life Come From? mn-zone.info/view/X3VBSlkxbXF0dzQ.html Eons - What Was the Ancestor of Everything? mn-zone.info/view/cGsyMTNYU1NrdFE.html Our universe is prone to increasing disorder and chaos. So how did it generate the extreme complexity we see in life? Actually, the laws of physics themselves may demand it. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Unruh Effect mn-zone.info/view/N2NqNm9pRkRFWGM.html How did life begin? We can seek the answer in the chemistry of the early earth, or in the biology of the first cell. In fact our friends at PBS Eons and It’s OK to be Smart will do just that in companion videos to this one. But we all know that chemistry and biology are just applied physics. So can we approach the question of the origin and the very nature of life from the point of view of physics? We’re sure going to try. Hosted and written by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen TJMadison Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
The Unruh Effect | Space Time
The Unruh Effect | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Worried about black holes? Consider this: Every time you accelerate - you generate an event horizon behind you. The more you accelerate away from it the closer it gets. Don’t worry, it can never catch up to you, but the Unruh radiation it generates sure can. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Andromeda-Milky Way Collision mn-zone.info/view/X1AxeEtoX2taRlU.html Around the same time that Stephen Hawking was demonstrating the existence of the black hole radiation that would bear his name, three other researchers, Stephen Fulling, Paul Davis, and William Unruh, were looking at an effect that now seems eerily similar. They were independently studying how the nature of quantum fields appears to change depending on whether or not an observer is accelerating. They found that simple act of acceleration cuts off your causal access to a region of the universe. It creates a type of event horizon. As we saw in our episode on horizon radiation, the presence of horizons distorts the quantum vacuum in a way that can create particles. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Classical analogue of the Unruh effect Leonhardt, Griniasty, Wildeman, Fort, & Fink arxiv.org/abs/1709.02200 Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen TJMadison Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
The Andromeda-Milky Way Collision | Space Time
The Andromeda-Milky Way Collision | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE The Andromeda galaxy is heading straight toward our own Milky Way. The two galaxies will inevitably collide. Will that be the very last night sky our solar system witnesses? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Scientists Have Detected the First Stars mn-zone.info/view/LVI5RjJfRDc2VEU.html See that fuzzy blob on the sky? The one just left of the Milky Way center in the constellation of Andromeda. That’s M31 - the Andromeda galaxy. It’s two and a half million light years away and host to a trillion stars. It has a beautiful spiral structure spanning its gently rotating disk 220 thousand light years in diameter, and a central bulge that hides a giant black hole that contains the mass of well over a hundred million Suns. Andromeda is also racing towards our galaxy at 110 km/s. Written and Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Comments Matt responded to include: The Exoplanets Channel mn-zone.info/view/LVI5RjJfRDc2VEU.html&lc=UgzYOYV-1GsJrSwlmZ14AaABAg Patrick Horgan mn-zone.info/view/LVI5RjJfRDc2VEU.html&lc=UgxB8ZoEtScJ4vFBSo94AaABAg And Springville High School’s AP Physics Class! Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Justin Lloyd Roman Pinchuk Hypernova Kevin Costello Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen TJMadison Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss Brandon Cook
Scientists Have Detected the First Stars | Space Time
Scientists Have Detected the First Stars | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE What do the first stars in the universe, dark matter, and superior siege engines have in common? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Trebuchet Challenge Winners: Vineet Gala Valerie Sinclair Alex Funiciello David Shearn Gwyn Paske Bruce & Angela Tremain Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Hawking Radiation mn-zone.info/view/cVBLajBZbktBTnc.html Sometimes space news sneaks by without getting much attention. Not everything wows like gravitational waves or spacefaring sportscars. That’s the case with the recent discovery of earliest stars in the universe. In a Nature paper published a few weeks ago, Judd Bowman and collaborators report a signal from the very first stars to form in our universe. The same result also hints at brand new physics that may help explain the nature of dark matter. This result flew under the radar in part because it’s a subtle and clever result that requires a bit of interpretation. Today we’re doing a Space Time Journal Club to explain this discovery. We’ll follow that with the solution to our recent trebuchet challenge question. Written and Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk Frank Secilia ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Barry Hatfield Craig Peterson Kevin Costello Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen TJMadison Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Soto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
Hawking Radiation
Hawking Radiation
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE It’s the most famous prediction of perhaps the most famous genius of our time ... Stephen Hawking's theory of Hawking Radiation. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­-shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Quantum Vacuum Playlist mn-zone.info/playPLsPUh22kYmNAHB1W2_Ka2F83sObdczwKr Previous Episode: Should Space be Privatized? mn-zone.info/view/d0o3ZDUwM2ZOLWc.html Soon after Einstein revealed his great general theory of relativity in 1915, physicists realized that it allowed for the possibility of catastrophic gravitational collapse. In places of extreme density like the dead core of a massive star, space and time could be dragged inwards to create a hole in the universe: a boundary in spacetime called an event horizon that could be entered, but from beyond which nothing could return. Once formed, there was nothing in theory or imagination that could bring material consumed back to the outside universe. These black holes should exist forever - only growing, never shrinking. References: Black Hole Explosions? S. W. Hawking (1974) www.nature.com/articles/248030a0 (paywall) Particle Breation by Black Holes S. W. Hawking (1975) link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02345020 (paywall) projecteuclid.org/euclid.cmp/1103899181 Hawking Radiation as Tunneling M. K. Parikh & F. Wilczek (2002) arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9907001 Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd and Graeme Gossel Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Barry Hatfield Edmund Fokschaner Kevin Costello Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Fabian Olesen Kris Fernet Jane Meyers James Flowers Greg Allen TJMadision Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
Should Space be Privatized? | Space Time
Should Space be Privatized? | Space Time
Жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Will the future of space exploration be guided by public or private entities? Which is better? Learn more about CuriosityStream at curiositystream.com/spacetime You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episodes: The Trebuchet Challenge mn-zone.info/view/RzdVT0ZaQkVBX2c.html Death of the Sun mn-zone.info/view/aUpZM3k1X2swZG8.html On February 8th 2018, the eyes of the world once again fixed upon Cape Canaveral. This time, people watched with anticipation as SpaceX launched its new Falcon Heavy rocket. This was the first test of a rocket that may one day send people across the solar system. The near-simultaneous landing of its two booster rockets was like something out of a sci-fi flick. It looked like the future. The subsequent view of a cherry-red Tesla Roadster drifting through space was like something out of a Douglas Adams novel. The landmark launch of the Falcon Heavy rocket is a milestone in a new space race. One not between nations, but instead between private companies. Is this the best thing for the future of human space travel? Links to Comments Response: Stimuli mn-zone.info/view/aUpZM3k1X2swZG8.html&lc=UgwGa3G9okwGJbcmINV4AaABAg Dethde mn-zone.info/view/aUpZM3k1X2swZG8.html&lc=UgzPK43QbAtjm4xtYJx4AaABAg Lcra Arcl mn-zone.info/view/RzdVT0ZaQkVBX2c.html&lc=UgytIQalMVs5jSETirF4AaABAg Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O’Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk ColeslawPurdie Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Barry Hatfield Craig Peterson Kevin Costello Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: James Hughes Kris Fernet Jane Myers James Flowers Greg Allen TJ Madison Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
The Trebuchet Challenge | Space Time
The Trebuchet Challenge | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Do you have what it takes to calculate the awesome power of the trebuchet? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Death of the Sun mn-zone.info/view/aUpZM3k1X2swZG8.html Kinetic and potential energy are defined as combinations of more basic quantities: position, velocity and mass. These combinations are chosen so that their sum is conserved. It’s actually remarkable that there’s any such combination of quantities that is conserved. This fact gives us insight into the fundamental symmetries of nature. It’s something we’ll get back to. Today I want to highlight the power of energy as a tool in calculation. We could get into fluid or stellar dynamics, or even quantum mechanics. But no, we’re going talk about something cooler - the trebuchet. If you’re not familiar, shame on you, but here’s the deal: the trebuchet is, I suppose, a type of catapult, but it’s so much more. The internet agrees that the trebuchet is the greatest of all medieval siege engines. Opinion is divided on whether Chuck Norris would win a fight against a trebuchet. The hyperbole is kind of warranted. The trebuchet is incredibly efficient at converting the potential energy of a massive counterweight into the castle-destroying kinetic energy of a projectile. It relies on the mighty power of the lever. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuk Frank Secilia Hypernova Shaun Williams Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Barry Hatfield Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Kris Fernet Jane Myers Brandon Cook James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss James Hughes TJ Madison
The Death of the Sun | Space Time
The Death of the Sun | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE What exactly will happen when the sun dies? You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: What is Energy? mn-zone.info/view/UFVuMml6b3dCa3c.html Like living things, stars have a life cycle. They’re born inside of a cloud of gas and dust, they live their lives fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores, shining bright and stable for as long as that hydrogen lasts. Then they die, each going out in its own beautiful way. How a star dies depends on its mass. The bigger they are, the shorter their lives and the more sublime their deaths. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Grayson Blackmon Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Linda Huang Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Justin Lloyd Roman Pinchuk Frank Secilia Hypernova Shaun Williams Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Barry Hatfield Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Jane Myers Brandon Cook James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss James Hughes TJ Madison
What is Energy? | Space Time
What is Energy? | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Energy is the most powerful and useful concept in all of physics, but what exactly is it? You can start your free trial of The Great Courses Plus at ow.ly/E15c30hIv7c You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Kronos: Devourer of Worlds mn-zone.info/view/OS1TeFZTcFNvZWs.html Written and Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Matthew Ranker Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) In physics energy is not a substance, nor is it mystical. Energy is a number. A quantity. And the quantity itself isn’t even particularly fundamental. Instead, it’s a mathematical relationship between other, more fundamental quantities. It was 17th century polymath Gottfried Leibnitz who first figured out the mathematical form of what we call kinetic energy - the energy of motion. He realized that the sum of mass times velocity squared for a system of particles bouncing around on a flat surface is always conserved, assuming no friction and perfect bounciness. Leibnitz called this early incarnation of energy vis viva - the living force. Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Justin Lloyd Roman Pinchuk Hypernova Shaun Williams Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Barry Hatfield Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Jane Myers Brandon Cook James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss "The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally."
Kronos: Devourer Of Worlds | Space Time
Kronos: Devourer Of Worlds | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE What happens when a star eats its planets? Find out on today’s Space Time Journal Club. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The End of Habitable Zone mn-zone.info/view/d3dHZUNmV2MxMDA.html RESOURCES Starlifting mn-zone.info/view/cHp1SHhMNUZENVU.html Kronos & Krios: Evidence for Accretion of a Massive, Rocky Planetary System in a Comoving Pair of Solar-Type Stars arxiv.org/pdf/1709.05344.pdf arxiv.org/abs/1709.05344 Korycansky, Laughlin & Adams 2000 deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/41972/10509_2004_Article_282187.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Our story begins where every story begins. In the heart of a vast cloud of gas and dust drifting through interstellar space. It is here that stars are born. We’ve talked about this process before, so in short: essentially all stars form in these stellar nurseries, and they form in the many thousands before being ejected from their birth clusters to wander the galaxy. Our Sun wanders alone, and we have no idea where its sibling stars might be. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Joey Redner Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Justin Lloyd Roman Pinchuk Hypernova Shaun Williams Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Barry Hatfield Craig Peterson Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Jane Myers Brandon Cook James Flowers Greg Allen Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
The End of the Habitable Zone | Space Time
The End of the Habitable Zone | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Learn through active problem-solving at Brilliant: brilliant.org/SpaceTime/ The Sun is getting brighter and the planets in our solar system that are habitable are changing. Check out Infinite Series at mn-zone.info/user/s4aHmggTfFrpkPcWSaBN9g.html You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Horizon Radiation mn-zone.info/view/YkcteHU1SDZwbGs.html The Sun is slowly burning through its fuel. Hydrogen is fused into helium in the Sun’s core, producing energy that keeps it shining, and keeping the Earth warm and hospitable to life. But that fuel WILL run out, after which the Sun will swell into a red giant and flash-fry the Earth. But in fact that frying - well, slow-roasting - will begin much earlier. See, the Sun is getting brighter even now. This has complex, and for the most part terrible implications for life. The end of the world will come sooner than you think. Hosted and written by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats Faisal Saud David Nicklas Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Roman Pinchuck Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Shaun Williams Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Greg Allen Ryan Griggs Brandon Cook Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
Horizon Radiation | Space Time
Horizon Radiation | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Learn about Horizon radiation and why it's essential for us to understand as we continue our journey towards the Unruh Effect and Hawking Radiation. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: What Do Stars Sound Like? mn-zone.info/view/VGJXeXVKWXliTUE.html Source material for our Sounds of Stars episode: MPL3D Solar System - Star Sounds" mn-zone.info/view/MG9neUtnVjRLTjQ.html Both theories of relativity, special and general, tell us that many things are observer dependent. Different observers might disagree about the speeds, lengths, or times, but the laws of physics should be the same for everyone. And for two observers with very different, but constant speeds - inertial observers - the vacuum itself should appear the same. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas William James Sidis Faisal Saud Anton Lifshits Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Tambe Barsbay Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Brandon Cook Mechanically Cryptic Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
What Do Stars Sound Like? | Space Time
What Do Stars Sound Like? | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE We can now map the interiors of stars by “listening” to their harmonies as they vibrate with seismic waves. Learn through active problem-solving at Brilliant: brilliant.org/SpaceTime/ You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Extinction by Gamma Ray Bursts mn-zone.info/view/OEh2d05PU252ZUU.html These equations of hydrostatic equilibrium allow us to calculate things like the density and temperature of the core, the way energy flows to the surface, and even the lifespan of stars. These models are largely built around what little we can learn from the light we receive directly from the surface of stars. But how do we test these models if we can never see beneath those surfaces? We may not see light from beneath the stellar surface, but another type of wave travels freely throughout stars. I’m talking about seismic waves. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Sounds of stars by Manuel Perez de Lema Lopez mn-zone.info/view/MG9neUtnVjRLTjQ.html Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang Anton Lifshits CoolAsCats Faisal Saud David Nicklas Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Greg Allen Ryan Griggs TJMadison Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stinglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
Space Time VR
Space Time VR
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Find the experience here: www.oculus.com/experiences/gear-vr/1499563420081410/
Extinction by Gamma-Ray Burst | Space Time
Extinction by Gamma-Ray Burst | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Find out about the last time and the next time the Earth will be hit by a Gamma-ray Burst. You can learn more about your personal DNA story by going to 23andme.com/spacetime You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Origin of Our First Interstellar Visitor mn-zone.info/view/bllHczkyLXFuRlk.html Gamma-ray bursts are much less common than regular supernovae, and in fact regular supernovae can do just as much damage as a GRB. However, for a supernova to produce the same effects it needs to be much closer - within 20 to 30 light years. There are definitely no stars in that range that could explode any time soon. However the Sun isn’t stationary. It orbits the Milky Way, and its galactic neighbors come and go. Maybe in a few 250-million-year orbits we stellar timebomb will wander into our vicinity. However it’s really the GRBs that are most likely to hit us first, and hit us more often. We should certainly expect one in the next half-to-one-billion years, even if it’s not WR104. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow and Meah Denee Barrington Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas William James Sidis Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Tambe Barsbay Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Mechanically Cryptic Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
The Origin of 'Oumuamua, Our First Interstellar Visitor | Space Time
The Origin of 'Oumuamua, Our First Interstellar Visitor | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE We were recently visited by a traveler from outside our solar system. This is the first time we’ve ever seen an object that came to us from interstellar space. It's name is 'Oumuamua. Check out curiositystream.com/spacetime You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_... Previous Episode: Understanding the Uncertainty Principle with Quantum Fourier Series mn-zone.info/view/aXpxYVd5WnNFdFk.html In this Space Time Journal Club we look into the origins of 'Oumuamua, an asteroid visiting us from beyond our solar system! We'll focus on the results of: "The origin of interstellar asteroidal objects like 1I/2017 U1" Portegies Zwart, Pelupessy, Bedorf, Cai & Torres 2017 arxiv.org/abs/1711.03558 On October 19th this year astronomers spotted an object moving rapidly away from the sun. The discovery was made by Pan-STARRS - the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System: a group of telescopes that constantly monitor the sky for moving or variable objects like asteroids or comets, It was initially thought to be a new comet, but after 34 days of follow up observations and a bit of orbital mechanics, it became abundantly clear that we were looking at the first object ever observed that came from outside our solar system. The mysterious object has been dubbed 1I: the first object in a brand new International Astronomical Union class, with “I” standing for “interstellar”. 1I also scored a more poetic name: 'Oumuamua, from the Hawaiian meaning “a messenger from afar arriving fast”. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas William James Sidis Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Tambe Barsbay Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Mechanically Cryptic Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
Understanding the Uncertainty Principle with Quantum Fourier Series | Space Time
Understanding the Uncertainty Principle with Quantum Fourier Series | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Sometimes intuitive, large-scale phenomena can give us incredible insights into the extremely unintuitive world of quantum mechanics. Sign up for your free trial of The Great Courses Plus at ow.ly/HAvT30beNAj Today the humble sound wave is going to open the door to really understanding Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, and, ultimately quantum fields and Hawking radiation. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Citizen Science + Zero-Point Challenge Answer | Space Time mn-zone.info/view/dEZCOE1zaXp2QmM.html One of the most difficult ideas to swallow in quantum mechanics is Werner Heisenberg’s famous uncertainty principle. It expresses the fundamental limit on the knowability of our universe. We’ve discussed it in our early videos on quantum mechanics, but it’s time we looked a little deeper. See, the apparent weirdness of the uncertainty principle hints at the even weirder underlying reality that gives rise to it. The universe we experience seems to be constructed of singular particles with well-defined properties. But this intuitive, mechanical reality is emergent from underlying reality in which the particles that form matter arise from of the combination of an infinity of possible properties. And forget matter - the vacuum itself is the sum of infinite possible particles. If we fully unravel this idea we’ll be on the verge of tackling things like Hawking radiation. But as you’ll see today, in that unraveling we are led, unavoidably, to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Graeme Gossel and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang CoolAsCats David Nicklas William James Sidis Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Tambe Barsbay Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Mechanically Cryptic Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stiglmayr Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally.
Citizen Science + Zero-Point Challenge Answer | Space Time
Citizen Science + Zero-Point Challenge Answer | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE The future of science is you. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Suicide Space Robots | Space Time mn-zone.info/view/X3gybkw2dWtKRGc.html The professional astronomer or astrophysicist is a pretty recent phenomenon. In the past, astronomy was often performed by nobility and extremely enthusiastic amateurs. Take William Herschel: by trade a classically trained musician, but as an amateur astronomer he discovered Uranus and was the first to observe binary star systems, among other things. Although it seems like the scientific exploration of our universe is now in the hands of full-time career astro-professionals, a ton of really valuable science is still done by people with proper day jobs. Today I want to talk about some of the stunning contributions still being made by citizen scientists, and the contributions YOU can make. Links to citizen science programs: JunoCam: www.missionjuno.swri.edu/junocam AAVSO: www.aavso.org Zooniverse: www.zooniverse.org Galaxy Zoo www.galaxyzoo.org Backyard Worlds: backyardworlds.org Seti@Home: setiathome.berkeley.edu Einstein@Home einsteinathome.org MilkyWay@Home milkyway.cs.rpi.edu/milkyway Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang BITISM CoolAsCats David Nicklas Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Mechanically Cryptic Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stiglmayr Yubo Du Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
Suicide Space Robots | Space Time
Suicide Space Robots | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Let’s take a moment to remember the selfless sacrifices made by some amazing robotic explorers. And be sure to learn more about your personal DNA story by going to www.23andMe.com/spacetime and taking advantage of their special holiday offer. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Zero-Point Energy Demystified | Space Time mn-zone.info/view/Umg4OThZcjVZWjg.html It takes a lot of tech to send humans into space and to keep people alive up there, and get them safely home. But we have few qualms about sending robots on one-way suicide missions to the stars. And in some cases, the very destruction of these probes is part of the scientific experiment. Or in the case of the recent destruction of Cassini, to protect the solar system for future experiments. Today we’re going to memorialize the robots that have given their lives for in the name of space exploration. Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Written by Drew Rosen and Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang BITISM CoolAsCats David Nicklas Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Mechanically Cryptic Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stiglmayr Yubo Du Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
Zero-Point Energy Demystified | Space Time
Zero-Point Energy Demystified | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE Let’s talk about the mysterious zero-point energy and what it really can, and really can’t do. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Vacuum Challenge | Space Time mn-zone.info/view/bjZqQU9WN2JaM1k.html The quantum field theory predicts that there exists an energy of the vacuum resulting from the non-zero zero-point energies of the quantum fields that fill our universe. As we discussed in our last episode on the vacuum catastrophe, this mismatch between the measured and theoretical values of vacuum energy is one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics. Written and Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang BITISM CoolAsCats David Nicklas Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stiglmayr Yubo Du Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
The Vacuum Catastrophe
The Vacuum Catastrophe
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE If vacuum energy really does have the enormous value predicted by quantum field theory then our gently expanding, geometrically flat universe shouldn’t exist. This is the vacuum catastrophe. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Missing Mask Mystery | Space Time mn-zone.info/view/UmNoUnJuZ2ZqUVk.html Links to Comments Response: Michael mn-zone.info/view/WDVyQUdmalBTV0U.html&lc=z23swryzgkibc3atqacdp43a31ukx3xnflbaomxcwwlw03c010c Jeremy Zambelli mn-zone.info/view/WDVyQUdmalBTV0U.html&lc=z23dhh04rtmeez1rb04t1aokgicw4o1gjiic2vmezi2fbk0h00410 TS1336 mn-zone.info/view/WDVyQUdmalBTV0U.html&lc=z22sux052luoih4xz04t1aokgu2halbv0cnkiqu4azyerk0h00410 Eliran Cohen mn-zone.info/view/WDVyQUdmalBTV0U.html&lc=z22yzr5z3u3yvn2hs04t1aokgnid302xmdruho1qwzylbk0h00410 Let’s talk about vacuum energy from a theoretical standpoint. From the perspective of quantum field theory, every point in space is represented by a quantum oscillator; one for each elementary particle type. Higher energy oscillations represent the presence of real particles. However even the lowest possible energy oscillation - the one corresponding to the absence of particles - has some energy. Written and Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang BITISM CoolAsCats David Nicklas Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stiglmayr Yubo Du Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
The Missing Mass Mystery | Space Time
The Missing Mass Mystery | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE For years, astronomers have been unable to find up to half of the baryonic matter in the universe. We may just have solved this problem. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: The Nature of Nothing | Space Time mn-zone.info/view/WDVyQUdmalBTV0U.html Dark Matter! mn-zone.info/view/ejNyZ2wtX2E1QzA.html Dark Energy Playlist mn-zone.info/view/eFpUYjZzZkhFWDg.html We’ve known for some time that around 95% of the energy content of the universe is in dark matter and dark energy. This dark sector doesn’t interact with light in any way and so is invisible to us. The remaining 5% - the light sector - represents all of the regular matter in the universe. Yet what if I told you that all of the stars and galaxies and galaxy clusters only comprise 10% of the light sector. The rest has proved as elusive as the dark sector. We think it must exist as extremely diffuse gas in between the galaxies, yet our intense searches miss up to half of it. At least until now. Resources Graaff et al. 2017, "Missing Baryons in the Cosmic Web Revealed by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect" arxiv.org/abs/1709.10378v1 Tanimura et al. 2017, "A Search for Warm/Hot Gas Filaments Between Pairs of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies" arxiv.org/abs/1709.05024 Written and Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang BITISM CoolAsCats David Nicklas Richard Senegor Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Peter Durocher Michael Kers Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stinglmayr Yubo Du Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss
The Nature of Nothing | Space Time
The Nature of Nothing | Space Time
2 жилийн өмнө
Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: to.pbs.org/DonateSPACE It turns out that "nothing" is one of the most interesting somethings in all of physics. Signup for your free trial to The Great Courses Plus here: ow.ly/OOOp30beNyt Note: There is a correction in this video that has been addressed in the pinned comment below. You can further support us on Patreon at www.patreon.com/pbsspacetime Get your own Space Time t­shirt at bit.ly/1QlzoBi Tweet at us! @pbsspacetime Facebook: facebook.com/pbsspacetime Email us! pbsspacetime [at] gmail [dot] com Comment on Reddit: www.reddit.com/r/pbsspacetime Help translate our videos! mn-zone.info_cs_panel?tab=2&c=UC7_gcs09iThXybpVgjHZ_7g Previous Episode: Absolute Cold | Space Time mn-zone.info/view/T3ZnWnFHeEYzZW8.html Links to Comments Response: Man from Nantucket mn-zone.info/view/T3ZnWnFHeEYzZW8.html&lc=z22au3kgsnywi3tfuacdp43bey3x42yghxxfro3of3dw03c010c Laxmi Papney mn-zone.info/view/T3ZnWnFHeEYzZW8.html&lc=z221wb4gbmqozpfih04t1aokghgvqbdfhp5uaokihurork0h00410 Flo Striker mn-zone.info/view/T3ZnWnFHeEYzZW8.html&lc=z22exnpronzrfh4ij04t1aokgvbvlfrzle5r0scv5yx4bk0h00410 HK Norman mn-zone.info/view/T3ZnWnFHeEYzZW8.html&lc=z22gsnaxxkr4ht0vuacdp43b2kufaeojpztkpo35ecpw03c010c thesimulacre mn-zone.info/view/T3ZnWnFHeEYzZW8.html&lc=z22mxzsqdkyhuvkdkacdp433mitjuajhidaq0f5avexw03c010c How do we study nothing? An empty jar still contains something: molecules of air and a bath of infrared light from its warm environment. But what if we suck out every last molecule of air, chill the jar to absolute zero, and shield it from all external radiation? The jar would contain only empty space, but it turns out that empty space is far from nothing. Written and Hosted by Matt O'Dowd Produced by Rusty Ward Graphics by Kurt Ross Assistant Editing and Sound Design by Mike Petrow Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com) Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters: Big Bang BITISM CoolAsCats David Nicklas Richard Senegor Quasar Tambe Barsbay Mayank M. Mehrota Mars Yentur Mark Rosenthal Dean Fuqua Y2 Justin Lloyd Hypernova Edmund Fokschaner Max Levine Matthew O’Connor Eugene Lawson Barry Hatfield Martha Hunt Joseph Salomone Chuck Zegar Craig Peterson Jordan Young Ratfeast John Hofmann Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters: Denys Ivanov Nick Virtue Alexey Eromenko Nicholas Rose Scott Gossett Mark Dykstra Peter Durocher Michael Kers Chris Hicks Mark Vasile Patrick Murray Sultan Alkhulaifi Alex Seto Michal-Peanut Karmi Erik Stein Daniel Lyons Kevin Warne JJ Bagnell J Rejc Amy Jie Avi Goldfinger John Pettit Shannan Catalano Florian Stinglmayr Yubo Du Benoit Pagé-Guitard Nathan Leniz Jessica Fraley Loro Lukic Brandon Labonte David Crane Greg Weiss The Great Courses Plus is currently available to watch through a web browser to almost anyone in the world and optimized for the US market. The Great Courses Plus is currently working to both optimize the product globally and accept credit card payments globally.
Gary Barbour II
Gary Barbour II - Цагийн өмнө
Velocity *is* a dimension, compounded along each of the 3 spatial dimensions in 2 directions. That makes 3 spatial, 6 velocity, and 1 time dimension: 10 total.
James Robert
James Robert - Цагийн өмнө
I'm trying to figure out which GOT character this guy looks like.....
François-Xavier Dessureault
François-Xavier Dessureault - Цагийн өмнө
If the Universe is a computer, can it run Doom?
S
S - Цагийн өмнө
Because it's not even wrong.
S
S - Цагийн өмнө
By the way, the god Einstein wasn't the original creator of that equation. Everybody forgets to mention that.
Dave New
Dave New - Цагийн өмнө
I feel like I need to see the equipment and how this stuff is measured to get this but I know I’ll never get this... Great video anyway pbs is a total goldmine of content thanks yous...
roger
roger - Цагийн өмнө
Cool, what was happening before all that?
S
S - Цагийн өмнө
No, that's why they are called virtual...
Ventura Rodríguez Vallejo
Ventura Rodríguez Vallejo - 2 цагийн өмнө
Independently of who is right, if any, in this crisis, the "Hubble Constant" has suffered enough changes in its estimated value that it well deserves to be named, more accurately, the "Hubble UNconstant".
Hassan Saeed
Hassan Saeed - 2 цагийн өмнө
All of this sounds so lonely and scary...
Jay Schmidt
Jay Schmidt - 2 цагийн өмнө
God mad this Earth
mstjernis
mstjernis - 2 цагийн өмнө
Doesn't the wave function collapse whenever there is an increase in entropy? In the double-slit experiment entropy increases when the electron hits the back panel and its speed becomes heat, so that's where its wave function collapses, I thought. But maybe it loses speed before that too, without de-cohering?
PerfectArmonic
PerfectArmonic - 2 цагийн өмнө
What was The speed of light after 300 years from the moment when The Big Bang started? Was The Same as today, was many, many times bigger or smaler than our beloved “c”?
R T
R T - 2 цагийн өмнө
Why doesn’t he talk about the ‘delayed choice quantum eraser’ and how it gives more information to look at this problem in a deeper sense?
Melo Boy
Melo Boy - 2 цагийн өмнө
I use the universal wave function to charge my crystals and cure my friend's cancer
Sogo
Sogo - 2 цагийн өмнө
"Does Consciousness Influence Quantum Mechanics?" Yes... it's called, "Magick"... (Also known as, "Manipulating the Luck Plane") ;) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magick_(Thelema)
Kyle Dupont
Kyle Dupont - 2 цагийн өмнө
The reason of all this is because we're in a simulation. the stuff behind your field of view in a video game is not rendered, it only exists in the form of calculations but when you turn to look processing power has to be used to render the image, So the observation has a huge effect but not the power of your mind. This will be known to be a scientific fact in the future at some point
Paul Blades
Paul Blades - 2 цагийн өмнө
Electrons travel as probability waves but aren't the atoms/molecules in the detector collections of probability waves which are constrained and confined by rules of interactions that define the atom/molecule (isn't an electron in an atom smeared out as a probability wave but bound to the nucleus). An incoming photon will inevitably interact and combine with these systems to collapse the wave function Yet in the quantum eraser experiment the interaction at the interference screen can be "retro-actively influenced" by the photon at detector A or B (indicate which slit the original photon passed through) since photons travel further to get to A and B than their twin!
Camryn Brittain
Camryn Brittain - 2 цагийн өмнө
This video was meant for me!
Everton Nunes
Everton Nunes - 2 цагийн өмнө
If there's life out there, are we visible or detectable to them?
The Infidel
The Infidel - 2 цагийн өмнө
quantum ap(e)ology ...no pun intended
ZeoDyce
ZeoDyce - 2 цагийн өмнө
The Akashic Records.
S
S - 2 цагийн өмнө
Science-fiction, just like gravitational waves. Space has no properties, it's nothingness, a vacuum, so it cannot wave. Therefore, gravitational waves definitely do not exist. They have detected nothing but noise, and we're paying fot it! As for time, it's a human concept, a measure, not material substance, so it cannot warp. Think rationally.
Tomislav Homan
Tomislav Homan - 2 цагийн өмнө
mn-zone.info/view/Q1Q3U2lSaXFLLVE.html I see what you did there :)
TheOneAndOnlySame
TheOneAndOnlySame - 2 цагийн өмнө
No Perception is NOT reality. Reality exists without an observer.
De Biotuin
De Biotuin - 2 цагийн өмнө
Question: couldnt the inverse square law explain why from our perspective the universe seems to expand faster the further away it is? The volume of a balloon also expands faster on the outsides compared to the centre? So no dark energy, just regular expansion?
S
S - 2 цагийн өмнө
The Ether.
Marc Butts
Marc Butts - 2 цагийн өмнө
I love the idea of the infinite Universe means not only outward but inward seeing as how things are made up of other things always there has to be substance it's a beautiful thing
StupidityKiller -
StupidityKiller - - 2 цагийн өмнө
Imagine in the future we create AI but want to test it in a virtual world before the "real one", then the AI look deeper and deeper into the fabric reality and end up creating a "their own quantum physics" but it's just some glitch of the system.
JustinC721
JustinC721 - 2 цагийн өмнө
Anyone who has ever experienced the frustration of "USB Superposition" understands that consciousness and quantum space are inherently linked.
Levi Tschetter
Levi Tschetter - 2 цагийн өмнө
Don't worry guys, Sheldon Cooper's working on it
PlasmaBurns
PlasmaBurns - 2 цагийн өмнө
Coronavirus Patent number: 10130701 Abstract: The present invention provides a live, attenuated coronavirus comprising a variant replicase gene encoding polyproteins comprising a mutation in one or more of non-structural protein(s) (nsp)-10, nsp-14, nsp-15 or nsp-16. The coronavirus may be used as a vaccine for treating and/or preventing a disease, such as infectious bronchitis, in a subject. Type: Grant Filed: July 23, 2015 Date of Patent: November 20, 2018 Assignee: THE PIRBRIGHT INSTITUTE Inventors: Erica Bickerton, Sarah Keep, Paul Britton - PIRBRIGHT Institute funded in part by Bill Gates.
Christian Van Schepen
Christian Van Schepen - 2 цагийн өмнө
All science is based on a single premise: Give us one free miracle and we'll explain everything else...
t v
t v - 3 цагийн өмнө
Frustrating he doesnt talk about dr Dean Radin and his evidence that consienceness does effect the double slit experiment even if its just a person thinking about it in another room
Toamastar15
Toamastar15 - 3 цагийн өмнө
THESE VIDEOS ARE ALWAYS SOOOOOO FASCINATING!! Thank you so much for putting in so much work into these episodes, one thing I have always admired is your script writing, you make me think "i have never thought of it in this way" and the way you end your segments with "... spacetime" is always so fun, you keep us engaged right until the very end :) This video gave me an amazing idea for a stage show. I have always loved science but never had a good enough education to study it in a meaningful way so I decided to persue theatre and art instead. Videos like these always help fullfil the side of me that loves science and understanding the universe and i have wanted to find a way to merge my passions. Something about the way you write and make these videos has spoken to me about how to make science feel exciting and to feel that it is ok to not have a total understanding of how things work. I was thinking of rick and morty style characters doing live science experiments and demonstrations and using projections and holograms to explore physics and quantum mechanics :)
Pramod Herath
Pramod Herath - 3 цагийн өмнө
Ok, so I'm going to perform the double slit experiment with and without erasing. Except I'm not going to do it myself. Instead, I get my computer do it for me. The computer would randomly select whether it applies the eraser or not and then perform the experiment, take a photograph of the detector screen, apply some image processing to determine whether the electrons act like waves or particles in each experiment. In each experiment, the computer records only two things: whether the eraser is applied and what kind of behaviour the electrons exhibit. The computer would store these two results and those two results only in it's hard drive which we would later examine. If the results agree with what we get if we do the same experiment manually, we can come to either of two conclusions: either you don't need a conscious mind for the collapse of the wave function or the result on the hard drive itself was decided at the moment we looked at it. If our conclusion is the latter, then that simply put us in a position where we have to doubt ALL and ANY thing we ever observed as human beings from the dawn of the species.
Rickey Harris
Rickey Harris - 3 цагийн өмнө
Archaic scientific dogma just wont let them say what they are stared right in the face by. The shift offers serious issues for life on this planet. Hes failing to mention the true timeline of, as well as the coinciding extinction events throughout, those shifts.
Vicare
Vicare - 3 цагийн өмнө
what about the delayed choice experiment? Only the detectors that allow you to reconstruct the path of the particle collapse the wave function. What is the role of conciousness there?
kukul roukul
kukul roukul - 3 цагийн өмнө
LAME episode
AnteConfig
AnteConfig - 3 цагийн өмнө
The farther down the chain this quantum effect goes the less probable it becomes that the particles on the far end had anything to do with the collapse detected on the working end of this von Neumann chain. Checkmate Atheists
CatchingUpWithKAYDEN
CatchingUpWithKAYDEN - 3 цагийн өмнө
Am I the only one who can’t wait for zombies to come for my birth day we’re going to the test
Joshua Whitworth
Joshua Whitworth - 3 цагийн өмнө
Light is neither a wave or a particle but can be expressed as either one depending on how you arrange it....www.deviantart.com/joshua-j-whitworth/art/Newton-Rings-828645254
EditioCastigata
EditioCastigata - 3 цагийн өмнө
Talk about the “mystic realm” right there 4:34
Nathanial Ponn
Nathanial Ponn - 3 цагийн өмнө
I bought nothing
typograf62
typograf62 - 3 цагийн өмнө
The Gecko Drive ... doesn't sound like something from Star Trek.
EXTREME SCALE PERFORMANCE RC
EXTREME SCALE PERFORMANCE RC - 3 цагийн өмнө
This man needs to experience a DMT breakthrough and then revisit this topic.
mcgoodlovin
mcgoodlovin - 3 цагийн өмнө
There is only one observer
Uriels Machine
Uriels Machine - 3 цагийн өмнө
With our current understanding of quantum physics, all particles such as quarks, leptons and bosons must exist prior to the formation of matter. The one particle essential for matter to form and closest to the Planck length is the neutrino. Just as hydrogen (base element) is prolific in the known universe, neutrinos win out in vast abundance in both the macro and micro fields. Holy Ghost particle Batman. You said it Boy Wonder!
LameBrainMcCain
LameBrainMcCain - 3 цагийн өмнө
This vid is *epic* , Matt! It answered a lot of my questions!! And it borders on philosophy and religion. *Carl Sagan would be proud!* Keep up the great work!!
AppNasty
AppNasty - 3 цагийн өмнө
I have a friend who is heavily into that whole “the universe will provide” stuff. The idea that if you will it, the universe will make it happen. I started to question it because to me that would involve mysticism. Magic. If it were true then a lot of people would get exactly what they wanted. He argued that you must be aware of this idea first and not just WANT things to happen in life. So then that means either you’re being watched or you are god and can control the universe. Why couldn’t I then affect others? I want world peace and if I follow the rules it should happen? Why does it only affect me? Garbage basically. Lol.
Angel White
Angel White - 3 цагийн өмнө
The preasure on europa is intense so two holes I'll be best in the kce
Plain Main Account
Plain Main Account - 3 цагийн өмнө
“Go watch this video now, otherwise what I’m about to say will make no sense.” It still doesn’t lol
Geoffrey Crick
Geoffrey Crick - 3 цагийн өмнө
This really make no sense, and means that things that possibly happened millions of years ago don't get resolved until now. What level of consciousness? We don't even know how consciousness works, so the cat could have a level of consciousness.
TheMedia-Hacker
TheMedia-Hacker - 3 цагийн өмнө
Purely Ontological Expalntion for matter energy space and Time as a Form of Knowledge or Information>
3rd Floor Organics
3rd Floor Organics - 3 цагийн өмнө
You can't have physics if you don't have a conscience. Lol
Peter
Peter - 3 цагийн өмнө
The answer is no
Michigan USA/Singapore S.E.Asia
Michigan USA/Singapore S.E.Asia - 3 цагийн өмнө
Not a satisfying analogy explanation
Demetriuz UI - Physics
Demetriuz UI - Physics - 3 цагийн өмнө
Mate, I love this channel, and Im 16 working on a physics major (Don't question it), but I get so god damn lost in these videos
ל ק
ל ק - 3 цагийн өмнө
Can we terraform earth before we try mars? You people must be taking some nasty drugs.
Martin Popplewell
Martin Popplewell - 3 цагийн өмнө
I never thought I would see the day! If only you understood that many people know precisely what reality is but the causal loop paradox prevents us from being able to tell you... its too mind blowing, but you are getting closer and closer...
Val Veadora
Val Veadora - 3 цагийн өмнө
Where does David Bohm fit in all this?
Filip .Kratky
Filip .Kratky - 3 цагийн өмнө
Looking forward to that quantum decoherence episode
Carl James
Carl James - 3 цагийн өмнө
Your question in the title looks defensive.
nandagopal gopakumar
nandagopal gopakumar - 3 цагийн өмнө
If this is not wrong. Then I am not wrong either .
Face Palmization
Face Palmization - 3 цагийн өмнө
The neutrinos have mutated!
Gregor Colnik
Gregor Colnik - 3 цагийн өмнө
Here is a wild thought, if consciousness collapses the wave function, who collapses the wave functions of the particles that assemble our brains and body, when we look at ourselves or think about ourselves? Does consciousness really derive from our brain/thoughts? One thing is true, we shouldn't assume anything, keep our mind open, and just continue down the rabbit hole ;)
oiSnowy
oiSnowy - 4 цагийн өмнө
Given that Newton's a Brit, it's safe to assume his pronunciation of non-English languages would not be great.
cedriques straatsma
cedriques straatsma - 4 цагийн өмнө
I always thought not only humans counted as observers but atoms counted to.
Jewel Heart
Jewel Heart - 4 цагийн өмнө
So why do the particles NOT make their neat lines when the experiment is "not observed". This has been observed in 3 laboratories I believe when one forgot to turn on its camera?
RadicalxEdward
RadicalxEdward - 4 цагийн өмнө
I never realized how thick his eyebrows are. I’m not usually critical of people’s looks but now I can’t help seeing two black caterpillars.
RadicalxEdward
RadicalxEdward - 4 цагийн өмнө
I wonder if someone said “for every action there’s an equal and opposite reaction” decades or centuries before Newton, but they weren’t famous enough already or weren’t physicists, for them to be credited for it.
Serene Greene
Serene Greene - 4 цагийн өмнө
Explained ?
Fuseteam
Fuseteam - 4 цагийн өмнө
since all measurement equipment are made out of quantum particles, isn't it just the myriads of quantum interaction(s) that take place when "measuring" the system that "collapses" the wave function?
MsMotron
MsMotron - 4 цагийн өмнө
i've wondered about this problem since i first heard about schrödingers cat. i thought if the cat can be in superposition, why cant i be when i open the box. Now i have a bachelor of physics and still dont know the answer.
Andrey Lebedenko
Andrey Lebedenko - 4 цагийн өмнө
What do you hear when collapsing a wave function together with your friend? Bohm! =)
Quinten Cambridge
Quinten Cambridge - 4 цагийн өмнө
Keep in mind the fact that we emerge from an unfathomably specific chain of events starting at the conception of our universe, leading up to biological evolution, and eventually your conception and specific development which come from specific environmental conditions. Consider you're causal chain is a point on a graph and the universe has fundamental properties which can be changed. This would mean that changing these properties changes the gradient of the causal line of events, now since we have a set point that we need to intercept with our line (you) we cannot end up with a universe in which you exist but somehow the future is different.
Rick Wagner
Rick Wagner - 4 цагийн өмнө
Sigh smug...
Ronald Reynolds
Ronald Reynolds - 4 цагийн өмнө
The reason is A.I. They get superintelligent A.I. and the A.I. becomes their ruler. The A.I. knows better than to go tromping through some other A.I.'s neighborhood. It gets busy protecting it's own neighborhood from any A.I.'s that might have domination aspirations. All the A.I.s would be unimaginably powerful. To try to dominate would be suicide. They all lay low and protect.
Alpha
Alpha - 4 цагийн өмнө
The point of transition is when the "wave" pinpoint the detector a.k.a. the wave function collapses at that time. Animations showed us that really nicely the flash particle (quantum particle) interact with the particle of the detector (those who are explained with classical physics) then the signal goes to the viewer and so on. The question I asked myself was: for the example to be valid (for us to not know where transition happened) it need all of the components to be the same type (for example quantum particles) then we can't determine when the actuall detection take place it can be anywhere. But here is not the case soo, it's when the transition in the experement happens. That point is when the quantum wave collapsed (hit the detector) there is the point when we struck quantum mathematics and transitioned to classical mathematics.
feh meh
feh meh - 4 цагийн өмнө
When requirements from the future is paid back, it can't go no more and just is. I don't know enough to understand the rest of the issues. Un collapsed is uncomfortable. Why can't time seek a lowest energy state. As soon as it can be, it does be.
Derek OKeeffe
Derek OKeeffe - 4 цагийн өмнө
I'm curious about the quantum diet
Holobrine
Holobrine - 4 цагийн өмнө
6:27 What if the wave function never actually collapses, and it just appears to when our brains become part of the given quantum system? What if even though you cannot be aware of being in superposition, awareness itself still can? What if someone could be in a superposition of states where none of those states are aware of the others, and that’s why you can’t ask someone how superposition feels?
Jimmy M
Jimmy M - 4 цагийн өмнө
So because I don't think I know quantum mechanics, that must mean I actually do know quantum mechanics. But that would mean I in fact, don't know quantum mechanics.
Univer Sally
Univer Sally - 4 цагийн өмнө
I’m sure it’s been done before, but does anyone know if there was any study done into what the “slits” were made from and how that material might have influenced the movement of particles passing through?
John Walker
John Walker - 4 цагийн өмнө
There is even a planet where a monkey has it's own MN-zone physics channel.
richw0123
richw0123 - 4 цагийн өмнө
there is an interesting theory that consciousness arises within the neurons on cellular structures called microtubules, on a very much quantum level en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchestrated_objective_reduction. Its a nice idea to look into
sdfkjgh
sdfkjgh - 4 цагийн өмнө
4:22 "Look, I'm a member of The Residents!" --The Alchemist
Taylor Barnett
Taylor Barnett - 4 цагийн өмнө
THANK YOU FOR MAKING THIS.
Vic Vince
Vic Vince - 4 цагийн өмнө
What happens if you connect two different computers to the screen and have two separate observers, unaware of each other, make the experiment from the two different ”positions”?
Raghav Baijal
Raghav Baijal - 4 цагийн өмнө
If I had a couple of billion dollars lying around, I'd fund the $&@# out of this program. I wanna see this happen in my lifetime!
ThorAsgard
ThorAsgard - 4 цагийн өмнө
What if these primordial black holes formed really early and are now majorly around the cosmic horizon. Their extreme mass (hence pull) could be explaining the accelerating expansion of the universe?
Jeremiah Noar
Jeremiah Noar - 4 цагийн өмнө
Wouldn’t it be more efficient to just build a few on earth fusion reactors? Why would we go all the way to the sun when we can just make a few suns on earth?
Vash Singh
Vash Singh - 4 цагийн өмнө
Perception differs according how people choose to understand life(personal belief), raising perception aligns you to the frequency of the universe, seek spiritual wisdom at that point.
Ficiuc Flavius
Ficiuc Flavius - 4 цагийн өмнө
Just move the prompter in front of the camera. Makes you look like you're learning how to read.
Réal Morrissette
Réal Morrissette - 4 цагийн өмнө
I always had a very skeptical approach to "human biased interpretation" of the style "quantum superposition" . Obviously, scientist don't know what is really going on before they make a measurement. Because there is so much we don't know yet, it might be wise to keep the unnecessary interpretive assumptions to a minimum. As far as I'm concerned, we don't need to "invent" something when we can't even know what is really going on. I believe it would be preferable to just say : the particles are in an undetermined state instead of arbitrarily say that they are in a superposition of states.
boondockpaint
boondockpaint - 4 цагийн өмнө
Can we build a nuclear powered drill already?
Kerry McAuliffe
Kerry McAuliffe - 4 цагийн өмнө
The idea that the biochemistry "creates" the thoughts, but not the other way around, is shortsighted.
Carl Horn
Carl Horn - 4 цагийн өмнө
Their is no evidence of Consciousness!
daveharpe
daveharpe - 4 цагийн өмнө
Maybe we need to bring back strict determinism, no such thing as chance, quantum possibilities or decisions, or randomness. It only appears that way because we don't understand the mechanism. It's all a big complicated clock. The only problem with that is that it does not need an observer, so why is there consciousness? I have heard it explained as an illusion, but what is perceiving the illusion? To the best of my knowledge, there is no understanding of what consciousness is or how to create it.
Joaquin Elio
Joaquin Elio - 4 цагийн өмнө
Thanks. I loved Michio Kaku but his budist vission made science... poor.